Annals of Surgical Oncology

, Volume 26, Issue 12, pp 4091–4099 | Cite as

Facility Type is Associated with Margin Status and Overall Survival of Patients with Resected Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

  • Grace C. Lee
  • T. Clark Gamblin
  • Zhi Ven Fong
  • Cristina R. Ferrone
  • Lipika Goyal
  • Keith D. Lillemoe
  • Lawrence S. Blaszkowsky
  • Kenneth K. Tanabe
  • Motaz QadanEmail author
Hepatobiliary Tumors



Many studies have demonstrated associations between surgical resections at academic centers and improved outcomes, particularly for complex operations. However, few studies have examined this relationship in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). The hypothesis of this study was that facility type is associated with improved postoperative outcomes and survival for patients with ICC who undergo resection.


Patients with stages 1 to 3 ICC who underwent hepatectomy were identified using the National Cancer Database (NCDB) (2004–2014). Facilities were categorized as academic or community centers per Commission on Cancer designations. High-volume hospitals were those that performed 11 or more hepatectomies per year. Multilevel logistic mixed-effects models to identify predictors of outcomes and parametric survival-time models were used to determine overall survival (OS).


The study identified 2256 patients. Of these patients, 423 (18.8%) were treated at community centers, and 1833 (81.3%) were treated at academic centers. Nearly all high-volume centers were academic facilities (98.5% academic vs. 1.5% community centers), whereas low-volume centers were mixed (65.5% academic vs. 34.5% community centers) (p < 0.001). Surgery performed at an academic center was an independent predictor of decreased positive margins (odds ratio [OR], 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51–0.98; p = 0.04), a lower 90-day mortality rate (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.39–0.97; p = 0.03), and improved OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.78; 95% CI, 0.63–0.96; p = 0.02). Facility hepatectomy volume was not independently associated with any short- or long-term outcomes.


Treatment at an academic center is associated with fewer positive resection margins, a decreased 90-day mortality rate, and improved OS for patients who undergo ICC resection. Facility surgical volume was not shown to be significantly associated with any postoperative outcomes after adjustment for patient and disease characteristics.



Dr. Grace C. Lee was supported by the National Institutes of Health T32 Research Training in Alimentary Tract Surgery Grant No. DK007754-13.


Funding was provided by National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (Grant number “DK007754-13 (T32 Research Training in Alimentary T”).


There are no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Society of Surgical Oncology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Grace C. Lee
    • 1
    • 2
  • T. Clark Gamblin
    • 3
  • Zhi Ven Fong
    • 1
    • 2
  • Cristina R. Ferrone
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lipika Goyal
    • 2
    • 4
  • Keith D. Lillemoe
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lawrence S. Blaszkowsky
    • 2
    • 4
  • Kenneth K. Tanabe
    • 1
    • 2
  • Motaz Qadan
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA
  2. 2.Newton Wellesley HospitalNewtonUSA
  3. 3.Department of SurgeryMedical College of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA
  4. 4.Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of MedicineMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA
  5. 5.Surgical Oncology AssociatesMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA

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