Annals of Surgical Oncology

, Volume 25, Issue 12, pp 3502–3509 | Cite as

Urinary Diversion After Radical Cystectomy for Bladder Cancer: Comparing Trends in the US and Germany from 2006 to 2014

  • Christer GroebenEmail author
  • Rainer Koch
  • Martin Baunacke
  • Marianne Schmid
  • Angelika Borkowetz
  • Manfred P. Wirth
  • Johannes Huber
Urologic Oncology



Our aim was to assess and compare trends of urinary diversion (UD) for patients receiving radical cystectomy for the treatment of bladder cancer in the US and Germany, and to investigate decisive predictors for the choice of UD.


We analyzed the nationwide German hospital billing database and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2006 to 2014. Cases with a bladder cancer diagnosis combined with RC were included, and trends in the choice of UD, transfusion rates, length of stay, and mortality were assessed.


From 2006 to 2014, the total number of RCs recorded within the NIS were 17,711, with a varying annual caseload of 1666–2009, while RC numbers increased from 5627 to 7390 in Germany (p < 0.001 for trends), with a total of 60,447 cases. The share of incontinent UD in the US remained stable at 93%, while increasing from 63.2 to 70.8% in Germany. Multivariate models indicated age and sex were the most important factors associated with the choice of UD in both countries, while hospital caseload and teaching status were less relevant factors in the US. In-hospital mortality was lower in the US compared with Germany (1.9% vs. 4.6%; p < 0.001), with significantly shorter hospital stays (10.7 days in the US vs. 25.1 days in Germany; p < 0.001).


The increasing age of patients with presumably higher comorbidity in recent years led to increased use of incontinent UD in Germany, while continent UD appears to be underused in the US. Mortality and transfusion rates were significantly lower in the US within a shorter hospital stay.



Data Source

US Nationwide Inpatient Sample and German research data centers of the federal and state statistical offices, DRG statistics 2006–2014, and our own calculations. The authors thank Stefanie Uhrich and Melanie Scheller for supporting data retrieval. Part of this study was presented at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the European Association of Urology, London, UK, 24–28 March 2017.


Med-Drive Grant of the Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus TU Dresden. (Grant Number 60.356).


Dr. Huber reports personal fees from Amgen and Janssen, and grants and nonfinancial support from Intuitive Surgical and Takeda, outside the submitted work. Christer Groeben, Rainer Koch, Martin Baunacke, Marianne Schmid, and Manfred P. Wirth declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Society of Surgical Oncology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christer Groeben
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rainer Koch
    • 2
  • Martin Baunacke
    • 1
  • Marianne Schmid
    • 3
  • Angelika Borkowetz
    • 1
  • Manfred P. Wirth
    • 1
  • Johannes Huber
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Urology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav CarusTechnical University of DresdenDresdenGermany
  2. 2.Department of Medical Statistics and Biometry, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav CarusTU DresdenDresdenGermany
  3. 3.Department of UrologyUniversity Hospital GoettingenGoettingenGermany

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