Annals of Surgical Oncology

, Volume 26, Issue 3, pp 714–731 | Cite as

What Constitutes Optimal Management of T1N0 Esophageal Adenocarcinoma?

  • Fariha H. Ramay
  • Ashley A. Vareedayah
  • Kavel Visrodia
  • Prasad G. Iyer
  • Kenneth K. Wang
  • Swathi Eluri
  • Nicholas J. Shaheen
  • Rishindra Reddy
  • Linda W. Martin
  • Bruce D. Greenwald
  • Melanie A. EdwardsEmail author
Gastrointestinal Oncology


Purpose and Design

Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) develops as a consequence of gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus (BE). While combination therapy with chemotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by esophagectomy improves survival in more advanced tumors, the optimal treatment strategy for early-stage EAC is undefined. Endoscopic eradication therapy, consisting of endoscopic resection and mucosal ablation, has revolutionized therapy for superficial (T1a) EAC in BE and allows for esophageal preservation in appropriate patients at low risk for lymph node metastasis (LNM). This review critically examines the literature regarding evaluation, treatment, and outcomes in patients with T1 EAC.


The literature was queried via the PubMed database to include articles published between 1990 and 2017. Search terms were generated from the key statements “Endoscopic eradication therapy results in equivalent overall survival when compared to esophagectomy for clinical T1aN0 EAC” and “Esophagectomy provides better overall survival than endoscopic eradication therapy for cT1b EAC”. Abstracts were reviewed and included according to predefined selection and exclusion criteria, and were then assessed according to the GRADE system.

Results and Conclusions

In patients with T1aN0 EAC, overall survival with endoscopic eradication therapy is equal to esophagectomy. Given the substantial risk of LNM in patients with submucosal (T1b) EAC, esophagectomy remains the standard of care for surgical candidates. In the case of inoperability or low-risk lesions, endoscopic resection may be considered adequate therapy. Chemotherapy and radiation can be offered as primary therapy for non-surgical candidates with lesions not amenable to endoscopic therapy, but does not have a clear role in the adjuvant setting after either endoscopic or surgical resection.



Research reported in this publication was supported by the University of Maryland under Award No. T32DK067872 (FR). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily reflect the views of the National Institutes of Health.


Fariha H. Ramay, Ashley A. Vareedayah, Kavel Visrodia, Prasad G. Iyer, Kenneth K. Wang, Swathi Eluri, Nicholas J. Shaheen, Rishindra Reddy, Linda W. Martin, Bruce D. Greenwald, and Melanie A. Edwards have no conflicts of interest to disclose.


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Copyright information

© Society of Surgical Oncology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fariha H. Ramay
    • 1
  • Ashley A. Vareedayah
    • 2
  • Kavel Visrodia
    • 3
  • Prasad G. Iyer
    • 3
  • Kenneth K. Wang
    • 3
  • Swathi Eluri
    • 4
  • Nicholas J. Shaheen
    • 4
  • Rishindra Reddy
    • 5
  • Linda W. Martin
    • 6
  • Bruce D. Greenwald
    • 1
  • Melanie A. Edwards
    • 7
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of MedicineUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of MedicineSaint Louis University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA
  3. 3.Division of Gastroenterology and HepatologyMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  4. 4.Division of Gastroenterology and HepatologyUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  5. 5.Department of Thoracic SurgeryUniversity of Michigan Medical CenterAnn ArborUSA
  6. 6.Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of SurgeryUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA
  7. 7.Cardiovascular and Thoracic SurgeryIntegrated Health AssociatesYpsilantiUSA

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