Collagen and chitosan have haemostatic, tissue fix and wound healing properties but the poor mechanical property limits their application. Therefore, various concentrations of collagen (1–6%) and chitosan (1–2%) were used to develop biopolymer-coated gauzes, with and without glycerol as plasticiser. Glycerol-treated gauzes showed desired mechanical and adhesive property in comparison to polymer-coated gauzes alone. Developed gauzes were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry, thermal gravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry to confirm the biopolymer coating and stability. Scanning electron microscopy showed multilayer coating of the biopolymer and faster clotting in chitosan gauzes in comparison to collagen. Surface plasmon resonance assay confirmed that chitosan exhibited more binding affinity of 65 RU in comparison to collagen, which showed 55 RU with erythrocytes. Decrease in the value of plateletcrit and mean platelet volume confirmed platelet adhesion and aggregation over the surface of polymer-coated dressings. Gamma scintigraphy studies showed 85 ± 2% formulation retention up to 12 h at the wound site in comparison to 40 ± 3% retention of the radiopharmaceutical alone. Collagen and chitosan-coated gauze showed 226 ± 15 s and 179 ± 12 s haemostasis time, respectively, which was significantly less from 506 ± 15 s in standard gauze. Chitosan gauze showed faster wound healing in comparison to the collagen-coated gauze. Chitosan and collagen-coated gauzes showed 55 ± 4% wound contraction on day seven in comparison to 25 ± 2% in the control group, while chitosan gauzes showed complete wound contraction on day fourteenth, while the collagen-coated gauze showed 90 ± 3% on the same day.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Achneck HE, Sileshi B, Jamiolkowski RM, Albala DM, Shapiro ML, Lawson JH. A comprehensive review of topical haemostatic agents: efficacy and recommendations for use. Ann Surg. 2010;251:217–28.
Sauaia AMD, Moore FAMD, Moore EEMD, Moser KSPRA, Brennan RRNMS, Read RAMD, et al. Epidemiology of trauma deaths. Epidemiology of trauma deaths: a reassessment. J Trauma Inj Infect Crit Care. 1995;38(2):185–93.
Hirshberg A, Wall MJ, Ramchandani MK, Mattox KL. Re-operation for bleeding in trauma. Arch Surg. 1993;128:1163–7.
Enoch S, Leaper DJ. Basic science of wound healing. Surgery (Oxford). 2005;26:31–7.
Ong S-Y, Wu J, Moochhala SM, Tan M-H, Lu J. Development of a chitosan based wound dressing with improved Haemostatic and antimicrobial properties. Biomaterials. 2008;29:4323–32.
Pusateri AE, Kheirabadi BS, Delgado AV, Doyle JW, Kanellos J, Uscilowicz JM. Structural design of the dry fibrin sealant dressing and its impact on the haemostatic efficacy of the product. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2004;70:114–21.
Pusateri AE, Modrow HE, Harris RA, Holcomb JB, Hess JR, Mosebar RH. Advanced haemostatic dressing development program: animal model selection criteria and results of a study of nine Haemostatic dressings in a model of severe large venous hemorrhage and hepatic injury in swine. J Trauma. 2003;55:518–26.
Liu X, Ma L, Mao Z, Gao C. Chitosan-based biomaterials for tissue repair and regeneration. Chitosan for biomaterials II. In: Jayakumar R, Prabaharan M, Muzzarelli RAA, editors. Advances in polymer science. Heidelberg: Springer Berlin; 2011. p. 81–127.
Rao SB, Sharma CP. Use of chitosan as a biomaterial: studies on its safety and haemostatic potential. J Biomed Mater Res. 1997;34:21–8.
Ghica MV, Albu MG, Popa L, Moisescu S. Response surface methodology and Taguchi approach to assess the combined effect of formulation factors on minocycline delivery from collagen sponges. Pharmazie. 2013;68:340–8.
Ghica MV, Albu MG, Leca M, Popa L, Moisescu S. Design and optimization of some collagen-minocycline based hydrogels potentially applicable for the treatment of cutaneous wounds infections. Pharmazie. 2011;66:853–61.
Antoniac IV, Albu MG, Antoniac A, Rusu LC, Ghica MV. Collagen-bioceramic smart composites. In: Antoniac IV, editor. Handbook of bioceramics and biocomposites. Basel: Springer; 2016.
Albu MG. Collagen gels and matrices for biomedical applications. Saarbrücken: Lambert Academic Publishing; 2011. ISBN 978-01-9850-970-7
Lee CH, Lee Y. Collagen-based formulations for wound healing applications. In: Agren M, editor. Wound healing biomaterials, vol. 2. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing, Elsevier; 2016. p. 135–49. ISBN 978-1-78242-456-7.
De Almeida EB, Cardoso JC, Lima a AKD, Oliveira a NLD, Pontes-Filho c NTD, Lima a SO, Souza a ICL, Cavalcanti de RL, Júnior a AJ. The incorporation of Brazilian propolis into collagen-based dressing films improves dermal burn healing. J Ethnopharmacology. 2013;147:419–25.
Akturk O, Tezcaner A, Bilgili H, Deveci MS, Gecit MR, Keskin D. Evaluation of sericin/collagen membranes as prospective wound dressing biomaterial. J Biosci Bioeng. 2011;112:279–88.
Aranaz I, Harris R, Heras A. Chitosan amphiphilic derivatives. Chemistry and applications. Curr Org Chem. 2010;14:308–30.
Chatelet C, Damour O, Domard A. Influence of the degree of acetylation on some biological properties of chitosan films. Biomaterials. 2000;22:261–8.
Pusateri AE, Holcomb JB, Harris RA, MacPhee MJ, Charles NC, Beall LD. Effect of fibrin bandage fibrinogen concentration on blood loss after grade V liver injury in swine. Mil Med. 2001;166:217–22.
Brian TG. Effects of Celox and trauma DEX on hemorrhage control in a porcine model. AANA J. 2010;78(2):115–20.
Mercy HP, Halim AS, Hussein AR. Chitosan-derivatives as haemostatic agents: their role in tissue regeneration. Regen Res. 2012;1:38–46.
Arafat MT, Tronci G, Yin J, Wood DJ, Russell SJ. Biomimetic wet-stable fibres via wet spinning and diacid-based crosslinking of collagen triple helices. Polymer. 2015;77:102–12.
Tronci G, Grant CA, Thomson NH, Russell SJ, Wood DJ. Multi-scale mechanical characterization of highly swollen photo-activated collagen hydrogels. J R Soc Interface. 2015;12:20141079.
Tronci G, Doyle A, Russell SJ, Wood DJ. Structure-property-function relationships in triple-helical collagen hydrogels. Mater Res Soc Symp Proc. 2013;1498:145–50.
Wedmore I, McManus JG, Pusateri AE, Holcomb JB. A special report on the chitosan based haemostatic dressing: experience in current combat operations. J Trauma. 2006;60:6558.
Rhee P, Brown C, Martin M, Salim A, Plurad D, Green D. QuikClot use in trauma for hemorrhage control: case series of 103 documented uses. J Trauma. 2008;64:1093–9.
Bettini R, Romani AA, Morganti MM, Borghetti AF. Physicochemical and cell adhesion properties of chitosan films prepared from sugar and phosphate containing solutions. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2008;68:74–81.
Park BK, Kim MM. Applications of chitin and its derivatives in biological medicine. Int J Mol Sci. 2010;11:5152–64.
Hunt TK, Beckert S. Therapeutical and practical aspects of oxygen in wound healing. In: Lee B, editor. The wound management manual. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. 2000;44–54.
Rydzak J, Kaczmarek R, Czerwinski M, Lukasiewicz J, Tyborowska J. The Baculovirus-expressed binding region of Plasmodium falciparum EBA-140 ligand and its Glycophorin C binding specificity. PLoS One. 2015;10(1):e0115437.
Tsukada K, Tokunaga K, Iwama T, Mishima Y. The pH changes of pressure ulcers related to the healing process of wounds. Wounds. 1992;4(1):16–20.
de Lima JM, Sarmento RR, de Souza JR, Brayner FA, Feitosa APS, Padilha R, et al. Evaluation of hemagglutination activity of chitosan nanoparticles using human erythrocytes. Biomed Res Int. 2015; I.D.247965, 1–6.
Pogorielov M, Kalinkevich O, Deineka V, Garbuzova V, Solodovnik A, Kalinkevich A, et al. Haemostatic chitosan coated gauze: in vitro interaction with human blood and in-vivo effectiveness. Biomater Res. 2015;19(22):1–6.
Chhabra P, Tyagi P, Bhatnagar A, Mittal G, Kumar A. Optimization, characterization, and efficacy evaluation of 2% chitosan scaffold for tissue engineering and wound healing. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2016;8:300–8.
Sharma A, Fish BL, Moulder JE, Medhora M, Baker JE, Mader M, et al. Safety and blood sample volume and quality of a refined retro-orbital bleeding technique in rats using a lateral approach. Lab Anim. 2014;43(2):63–6.
Pan H, Fan D, Cao W, Zhu C, Duan Z, Fu R, et al. Preparation and characterization of breathable hemostatic hydrogel dressings and determination of their effects on full-thickness defects. Polymers. 2017;9:727.
Schneider LA, Korber A, Grabbe S, Dissemond J. Influence of pH on wound-healing: a new perspective for wound-therapy? Arch Dermatol Res. 2007;298:413–20.
Stavitsky AB. Micromethods for the study of proteins and antibodies. I. Procedure and general applications of hemagglutination and hemagglutination-inhibition reactions with tannic acid and protein-treated red blood cells. J Immunol. 1954;72(5):360–7.
Sixma JJ, Wester J. The Haemostatic plug. Semin Hematol. 1977;14:265–99.
This work was supported by a grant from the Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences-Defence Research and Development Organization (INMAS-DRDO), New Delhi. Grant No. INM/321.
Conflict of Interest
The writers proclaimed no conflicts of interest as for the research, authorship and publication of this article.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Tripathi, D., Rastogi, K., Tyagi, P. et al. Comparative Analysis of Collagen and Chitosan-based Dressing for Haemostatic and Wound Healing Application. AAPS PharmSciTech 22, 76 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1208/s12249-021-01944-9
- gamma scintigraphy