AAPS PharmSciTech

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 1773–1780 | Cite as

Safety and Antioxidant Efficacy Profiles of Rutin-Loaded Ethosomes for Topical Application

  • Thalita Marcílio Cândido
  • Camila Areias De Oliveira
  • Maíra Bueno Ariede
  • Maria Valéria Robles Velasco
  • Catarina Rosado
  • André Rolim Baby
Research Article


Topical application of dermocosmetics containing antioxidant and/or the intake of antioxidants through diet or supplementation are remarkable tools in an attempt to slow down some of the harmful effects of free radicals. Rutin is a strong antioxidant compound used in food and pharmaceutical industries. It was established that rutin presents a low skin permeation rate, a property that could be considered an inconvenience to the satisfactory action for a dermocosmetic formulation to perform its antioxidant activity onto the skin. Therefore, it is indispensable to improve its delivery, aiming at increasing its antioxidant capacity in deeper layers of the epidermis, being a possibility to associate the rutin to liposomal vesicles, such as ethosomes. Thus, in this work, the pre-clinical safety of rutin-loaded ethosomes was investigated employing an in vitro method, and the clinical safety and efficacy were also assessed. Rutin-loaded ethosomes were efficaciously obtained in a nanoscale dimension with a relevant bioactive compound loading (80.2%) and provided antioxidant in vitro activity in comparison with the blank sample. Pre-clinical and clinical safety assays assured the innocuous profile of the rutin-loaded ethosomes. The ethosomes containing the bioactive compound accomplished a more functional delivery system profile, since in the tape stripping assay, the deeper layers presented higher rutin amounts than the active delivered in its free state. However, the ex vivo antioxidant efficacy test detected no positive antioxidant activity from the rutin-loaded ethosomes, even though the in vitro assay demonstrated an affirmative antioxidant action.


Ethosomes Rutin Antioxidant activity Safety Tape stripping 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP; process number 2012/04435-9) and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq).


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Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thalita Marcílio Cândido
    • 1
  • Camila Areias De Oliveira
    • 1
  • Maíra Bueno Ariede
    • 1
  • Maria Valéria Robles Velasco
    • 1
  • Catarina Rosado
    • 2
  • André Rolim Baby
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.CBIOS – Universidade Lusófona’s Research Center for Biosciences and Health TechnologiesLisbonPortugal

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