Daptomycin Proliposomes for Oral Delivery: Formulation, Characterization, and In Vivo Pharmacokinetics
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The aim of this study was to develop a proliposomal formulation of lipopeptide antibiotic drug daptomycin (DAP) for oral delivery. Thin film hydration was the selected method for preparation of proliposomes. Different phospholipids including soy-phosphatidylcholine (SPC), hydrogenated egg-phosphatidylcholine (HEPC), and distearoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) were evaluated in combination with cholesterol. The inclusion of surface charge modifiers in the formulation such as dicetyl phosphate (DCP) and stearylamine (SA) to enhance drug encapsulation was also evaluated. Particle size, surface charge, and encapsulation efficiency were performed on daptomycin-hydrated proliposomes as part of physical characterization. USP type II dissolution apparatus with phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) was used for in vitro drug release studies. Optimized formulation was evaluated for in vivo pharmacokinetics after oral administration to Sprague-Dawley rats. Proliposomes composed of SPC exhibited higher entrapment efficiency than those containing HEPC or DSPC. The highest entrapment efficiency was achieved by positively charged SPC-SA proliposomes, showing an encapsulation efficiency of 92% and a zeta potential of + 28 mV. In vitro drug release of optimized formulation demonstrated efficient drug retention totaling for less than 20% drug release within the first 60 min and only 42% drug release after 2 h. Pharmacokinetic parameters after single oral administration of optimized proliposomal formulation indicated a significant increase in oral bioavailability of DAP administered as SPC-SA proliposomes when compared to drug solution. Based on these results, incorporation of charge modifiers into proliposomes may increase drug loading and proliposomes an attractive carrier for oral delivery of daptomycin.
KEY WORDSoral bioavailability pharmacokinetics proliposomes daptomycin
The authors express their sincere gratitude to Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, California for providing the facilities.
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Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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