AAPS PharmSciTech

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 1377–1391 | Cite as

Risk Assessment Integrated QbD Approach for Development of Optimized Bicontinuous Mucoadhesive Limicubes for Oral Delivery of Rosuvastatin

  • Md Noushad Javed
  • Kanchan Kohli
  • Saima Amin
Research Article


Statins are widely prescribed for hyperlipidemia, cancer, and Alzheimer’s disease but are facing some inherent challenges such as low solubility and drug loading, higher hepatic metabolism, as well as instability at gastric pH. So, relatively higher circulating dose, required for exerting the therapeutic benefits, leads to dose-mediated severe toxicity. Furthermore, due to low biocompatibility, high toxicity, and other regulatory caveats such as product conformity, reproducibility, and stability of conventional formulations as well as preferentially higher bioabsorption of lipids in their favorable cuboidal geometry, enhancement in in vivo biopharmaceutical performance of Rosuvastatin could be well manifested in Quality by Design (QbD) integrated cuboidal-shaped mucoadhesive microcrystalline delivery systems (Limicubes). Here, quality-target-product-profile (QTPPs), critical quality attributes (CQAs), Ishikawa fishbone diagram, and integration of risk management through risk assessment matrix for failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) followed by processing of Plackett-Burman design matrix using different statistical test for the first time established an approach to substantiate the claims that controlling levels of only these three screened out independent process variables, i.e., Monoolein (B = 800–1100 μL), Poloxamer (C = 150–200 mg), and stirring speed (F = 700–1000 rpm) were statistically significant to modulate and improve the biopharmaceutical performance affecting key attributes, viz., average particle size (Y1 = 1.40–2.70 μ), entrapment efficiency (Y2 = 62.60–88.80%), and drug loading (Y3 = 0.817–1.15%), in QbD-enabled process. The optimal performance of developed Limicubes exhibited an average particle size of 1.8 ± 0.2 μ, entrapment efficiency 80.32 ± 2.88%, and drug loading 0.93 ± 0.08% at the level of 1100 μL (+ 1), 200 mg (+ 1), and 700 rpm (− 1) for Monoolein, Poloxamer, and stirring speed, respectively.


QbD Risk assessment Limicubes Plackett-Burman Optimization 



The authors are thankful to the Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (formerly Faculty of Pharmacy), Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India for providing all instrument facilities required for carrying out research effectively.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors report no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Education and ResearchJamia HamdardNew DelhiIndia

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