AAPS PharmSciTech

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 1191–1204 | Cite as

Antioxidant-Based Eutectics of Irbesartan: Viable Multicomponent Forms for the Management of Hypertension

  • Jamshed Haneef
  • Renu Chadha
Research Article


The present research work highlights the development of multicomponent solid form of the antihypertensive drug irbesartan (IRB) to improve its biopharmaceutical attributes. Mechanochemical synthesis of a new solid form of IRB with coformers having antioxidant properties (syringic acid, nicotinic acid, and ascorbic acid) resulted into three eutectic mixtures (EMs). Formation of eutectic was ascertained by differential scanning calorimetry whereas exact stoichiometry (50/50% w/w) was established by phase diagram and Tamman’s triangle. The strong homomeric interaction between individual components and steric hindrances is responsible for the eutectic formation. EMs exhibited superior apparent solubility (five- to nine fold) and significant enhancement in intrinsic dissolution rate (two- to three fold) as compared to the plain drug. In vivo pharmacokinetic and in vivo pharmacodynamic studies revealed a significant improvement in the biopharmaceutical performance of EMs. Marked protection against oxidative stress was observed in EMs over plain drug by controlling the level/activity of plasma H2O2 and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) in the kidney matrix of dexamethasone (Dexa)-induced hypertensive rats. Thus, these solid forms of IRB can serve as viable multicomponent forms to be translated into product development for better therapeutic efficacy in the management of hypertension.


antihypertensive bioavailability eutectic mixtures mechanochemical synthesis oxidative stress 



The author Mr. Jamshed Haneef gratefully acknowledges the financial support from the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Ministry of Science & Technology, New Delhi, India, in the form of Inspire Fellowship (vide letter no. 2012/687) to carry out this research work. The authors highly acknowledge the services provided by the Sophisticated Analytical Instrumentation Facility (SAIF), Panjab University, India, to carry out the samples analysis. We are also thankful to Dr. B.N.Datta, Formerly Professor of Pathology at PGIMER, Chandigarh, India, for his expert guidance in the interpretation of histopathological results of kidney tissue.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

All the animal studies protocol was approved by Institutional Animal Ethics Committee, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India (PU/IAES/S/14/77).

Supplementary material

12249_2017_930_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.4 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 1440 kb)


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Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UGC-Centre of Advanced StudiesPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia

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