Phase Behaviour and Formation of Fatty Acid Esters Nanoemulsions Containing Piroxicam
- 401 Downloads
Fatty acid esters are long-chain esters, produced from the reaction of fatty acids and alcohols. They possess potential applications in cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations due to their excellent wetting behaviour at interfaces and a non-greasy feeling when applied on the skin surfaces. This preliminary work was carried out to construct pseudo-ternary phase diagrams for oleyl laurate, oleyl stearate and oleyl oleate with surfactants and piroxicam. Then, the preparation and optimization study via ‘One-At-A-Time Approach’ were carried out to determine the optimum amount of oil, surfactants and stabilizer using low-energy emulsification method. The results revealed that multi-phase region dominated the three pseudo-ternary phase diagrams. A composition was chosen from each multi-phase region for preparing the nanoemulsions systems containing piroxicam by incorporating a hydrocolloid stabilizer. The results showed that the optimum amount (w/w) of oil for oleyl laurate nanoemulsions was 30 and 20 g (w/w) for oleyl stearate nanoemulsions and oleyl oleate nanoemulsions. For each nanoemulsions system, the amount of mixed surfactants and stabilizer needed for the emulsification to take place was found to be 10 and 0.5 g (w/w), respectively. The emulsification process via high-energy emulsification method successfully produced nano-sized range particles. The nanoemulsions systems passed the centrifugation test and freeze–thaw cycle with no phase failures, and stable for 3 months at various storage temperatures (3°C, 25°C and 45°C). The results proved that the prepared nanoemulsions system cannot be formed spontaneously, and thus, energy input was required to produce nano-sized range particles.
KEY WORDShigh-energy emulsification method low-energy emulsification method particle size pseudo-ternary phase diagram stabilizer
This project is funded by National Biotechnology Directorate (project number 5487707), Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI), Malaysia, UPM, UiTM and Ministry of Higher Learning (MOHE) grant for the scholar, Nursyamsyila Mat Hadzir.
- 1.Syamsul KMW, Salina MR, Siti SO, Hanina MN, Basyaruddin MAR, Kamaruzaman J. Green synthesis of lauryl palmitate via lipase-catalyzed reaction. WASJ. 2010;11(4):401–7.Google Scholar
- 9.Nakajima H. Microemulsions in cosmetics. In: Solans C, Kunieda H, editors. Industrial applications of microemulsions. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1997. p. 175–97.Google Scholar
- 10.Solans C, Esquena J, Forgiarini AM, Usón N, Morales D, Izquierdo P, Azemar N, Garcia-Celma MJ. Nano-emulsions: formation, properties and applications. Surfactant Sci Ser. 2003;109:525–54.Google Scholar
- 17.Abdulkarim MF, Abdullah GZ, Sakeena MHF, Chitneni M, Yam MF, Mahdi ES, Salman IM, Ameer OZ, Munavvar AS, Basri M, Noor AM. Study of pseudoternary phase diagram behaviour and the effect of several Tweens and Spans on palm oil esters characteristics. Int J Drug Deliv. 2011;3:95–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar