AAPS PharmSciTech

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 456–463 | Cite as

Phase Behaviour and Formation of Fatty Acid Esters Nanoemulsions Containing Piroxicam

  • Nursyamsyila Mat Hadzir
  • Mahiran Basri
  • Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul Rahman
  • Abu Bakar Salleh
  • Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul Rahman
  • Hamidon Basri
Research Article


Fatty acid esters are long-chain esters, produced from the reaction of fatty acids and alcohols. They possess potential applications in cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations due to their excellent wetting behaviour at interfaces and a non-greasy feeling when applied on the skin surfaces. This preliminary work was carried out to construct pseudo-ternary phase diagrams for oleyl laurate, oleyl stearate and oleyl oleate with surfactants and piroxicam. Then, the preparation and optimization study via ‘One-At-A-Time Approach’ were carried out to determine the optimum amount of oil, surfactants and stabilizer using low-energy emulsification method. The results revealed that multi-phase region dominated the three pseudo-ternary phase diagrams. A composition was chosen from each multi-phase region for preparing the nanoemulsions systems containing piroxicam by incorporating a hydrocolloid stabilizer. The results showed that the optimum amount (w/w) of oil for oleyl laurate nanoemulsions was 30 and 20 g (w/w) for oleyl stearate nanoemulsions and oleyl oleate nanoemulsions. For each nanoemulsions system, the amount of mixed surfactants and stabilizer needed for the emulsification to take place was found to be 10 and 0.5 g (w/w), respectively. The emulsification process via high-energy emulsification method successfully produced nano-sized range particles. The nanoemulsions systems passed the centrifugation test and freeze–thaw cycle with no phase failures, and stable for 3 months at various storage temperatures (3°C, 25°C and 45°C). The results proved that the prepared nanoemulsions system cannot be formed spontaneously, and thus, energy input was required to produce nano-sized range particles.


high-energy emulsification method low-energy emulsification method particle size pseudo-ternary phase diagram stabilizer 



This project is funded by National Biotechnology Directorate (project number 5487707), Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI), Malaysia, UPM, UiTM and Ministry of Higher Learning (MOHE) grant for the scholar, Nursyamsyila Mat Hadzir.


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Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nursyamsyila Mat Hadzir
    • 1
    • 5
  • Mahiran Basri
    • 1
  • Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul Rahman
    • 1
  • Abu Bakar Salleh
    • 2
  • Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul Rahman
    • 3
  • Hamidon Basri
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular SciencesUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular SciencesUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  4. 4.Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health SciencesUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  5. 5.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied SciencesUniversiti Teknologi MARAArauMalaysia

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