AAPS PharmSciTech

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 1396–1406 | Cite as

Formation of Itraconazole–Succinic Acid Cocrystals by Gas Antisolvent Cocrystallization

  • Courtney A. Ober
  • Ram B. Gupta
Research Article


Cocrystals of itraconazole, an antifungal drug with poor bioavailability, and succinic acid, a water-soluble dicarboxylic acid, were formed by gas antisolvent (GAS) cocrystallization using pressurized CO2 to improve itraconazole dissolution. In this study, itraconazole and succinic acid were simultaneously dissolved in a liquid solvent, tetrahydrofuran, at ambient conditions. The solution was then pressurized with CO2, which decreased the solvating power of tetrahydrofuran and caused crystallization of itraconazole–succinic acid cocrystals. The cocrystals prepared by GAS cocrystallization were compared to those produced using a traditional liquid antisolvent, n-heptane, for crystallinity, chemical structure, thermal behavior, size and surface morphology, potential clinical relevance, and stability. Powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy analyses showed that itraconazole–succinic acid cocrystals with physical and chemical properties similar to cocrystals produced using a traditional liquid antisolvent technique can be prepared by CO2 antisolvent cocrystallization. The dissolution profile of itraconazole was significantly enhanced through GAS cocrystallization with succinic acid, achieving over 90% dissolution in less than 2 h. The cocrystals appeared stable against thermal stress for up to 4 weeks under accelerated stability conditions, showing only moderate decreases in their degree of crystallinity but no change in their crystalline structure. This study shows the utility of an itraconazole–succinic acid cocrystal for improving itraconazole bioavailability while also demonstrating the potential for CO2 to replace traditional liquid antisolvents in cocrystal preparation, thus making cocrystal production more environmentally benign and scale-up more feasible.


cocrystals dissolution rate gas antisolvent itraconazole 



The authors wish to acknowledge financial support from the National Science Foundation through NIRT grant DMI-0506722.


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Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringAuburn UniversityAuburnUSA

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