AAPS PharmSciTech

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 1293–1301 | Cite as

The Use of Artificial Neural Networks for Optimizing Polydispersity Index (PDI) in Nanoprecipitation Process of Acetaminophen in Microfluidic Devices

  • Mahdi Aghajani
  • Ahmad Reza Shahverdi
  • Amir Amani
Research Article


Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used in this study to determine factors that control the polydispersity index (PDI) in an acetaminophen nanosuspension which was prepared using nanoprecipitation in microfluidic devices. The PDI of prepared formulations was measured by dynamic light scattering. Afterwards, the ANNs were applied to model the data. Four independent variables, namely, surfactant concentration, solvent temperature, and flow rate of solvent and antisolvent were considered as input variables, and the PDI of acetaminophen nanosuspension was taken as the output variable. The response surfaces, generated as 3D graphs after modeling, were used to survey the interactions happening between the input variables and the output variable. Comparison of the response surfaces indicated that the antisolvent flow rate and the solvent temperature have reverse effect on the PDI, whereas solvent flow rate has direct relation with PDI. Also, the effect of the concentration of the surfactant on the PDI was found to be indirect and less influential. Overall, it was found that minimum PDI may be obtained at high values of antisolvent flow rate and solvent temperature, while the solvent flow rate should be kept to a minimum.


acetaminophen artificial neural networks microfluidic devices nanoprecipitation nanosuspension polydispersity index 



This research has been supported by Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Health Services grant no. 88-04-87-9701. The authors would like to thank Dr. Reza Fardi-Majidi for his support during the study.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest to disclose.


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Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahdi Aghajani
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ahmad Reza Shahverdi
    • 3
  • Amir Amani
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in MedicineTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.The Persian Gulf Biomedical Sciences InstituteBushehr University of Medical SciencesBushehrIran
  3. 3.Biotechnology Research CenterTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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