AAPS PharmSciTech

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 16–23 | Cite as

Terminalia Gum as a Directly Compressible Excipient for Controlled Drug Delivery

  • Oluyemisi A. Bamiro
  • Oluwatoyin A. Odeku
  • Vivek R. Sinha
  • Ruchita Kumar
Research Article


The exudates from the incised trunk of Terminalia randii has been evaluated as controlled release excipient in comparison with xanthan gum and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) using carvedilol (water insoluble) and theophylline (water soluble) as model drugs. Matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression and the effects of polymer concentration and excipients—spray dried lactose, microcrystalline cellulose and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate on the mechanical (crushing strength (CS) friability (F) and crushing strength–friability ratio (CSFR)) and drug release properties of the matrix tablets were evaluated. The drug release data were fitted into different release kinetics equations to determine the drug release mechanism(s) from the matrix tablets. The results showed that the CS and CSFR increased with increase in polymer concentration while F decreased. The ranking of CS and CSFR was HPMC > terminalia > xanthan while the ranking was reverse for F. The ranking for t 25 (i.e. time for 25% drug release) at a polymer concentration of 60% was xanthan > terminalia = HPMC. The dissolution time, t 25, of theophylline matrices was significantly lower (p < 0.001) than those of carvedilol matrix tablets. Drug release from the matrices was by swelling, diffusion and erosion. The mechanical and drug release properties of the tablets were significantly (p < 0.05) dependent on the type and concentration of polymer and excipients used with the release mechanisms varying from Fickian to anomalous. Terminalia gum compared favourably with standard polymers when used in controlled release matrices and could serve as a suitable alternative to the standard polymers in drug delivery.

Key words

excipients hydroxypropylmethylcellulose matrix tablets terminalia gum xanthan gum 



We wish to acknowledge the India Science Academy for an INSA-TATA Fellowship awarded to O. A. Bamiro. We also thank Daman Ghai, Honey Goel and Gupreet Singh for their assistance during the study.


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Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oluyemisi A. Bamiro
    • 1
  • Oluwatoyin A. Odeku
    • 2
  • Vivek R. Sinha
    • 3
  • Ruchita Kumar
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical TechnologyOlabisi Onabanjo UniversitySagamuNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial PharmacyUniversity of IbadanIbadanNigeria
  3. 3.University Institute of Pharmaceutical SciencesPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia

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