Solution-Mediated Phase Transformation of Haloperidol Mesylate in the Presence of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate
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Forming a salt is a common way to increase the solubility of a poorly soluble compound. However, the solubility enhancement gained by salt formation may be lost due to solution-mediated phase transformation (SMPT) during dissolution. The SMPT of a salt can occur due to a supersaturated solution near the dissolving surface caused by pH or other solution conditions. In addition to changes in pH, surfactants are also known to affect SMPT. In this study, SMPT of a highly soluble salt, haloperidol mesylate, at pH 7 in the presence of a commonly used surfactant, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), was investigated. Dissolution experiments were performed using a flow-through dissolution apparatus with solutions containing various concentrations of SLS. Compacts of haloperidol mesylate were observed during dissolution in the flow-through apparatus using a stereomicroscope. Raman microscopy was used to characterize solids. The dissolution of haloperidol mesylate was significantly influenced by the addition of sodium lauryl sulfate. In conditions where SMPT was expected, the addition of SLS at low concentrations (0.1–0.2 mM) reduced the dissolution of haloperidol mesylate. In solutions containing concentrations of SLS above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) (10–15 mM), the dissolution of haloperidol mesylate increased compared to below the CMC. The solids recovered from solubility experiments of haloperidol mesylate indicated that haloperidol free base precipitated at all concentrations of SLS. Above 5 mM of SLS, Raman microscopy suggested a new form, perhaps the estolate salt. The addition of surfactant in solids that undergo solution-mediated phase transformation can add complexity to the dissolution profiles and conversion.
KEY WORDSdissolution Raman microscopy salt forms solution-mediated phase transformation surfactant
The authors gratefully acknowledge the United States Pharmacopeia for the funding of this project through the USP fellowship 2009–2010. The authors thank Richard Winnike and Manish Gupta for providing haloperidol mesylate for the study.
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