Advertisement

AAPS PharmSciTech

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 1276–1286 | Cite as

Physical Properties of Gum Karaya-Starch-Essential Oil Patches

  • Yulia Shcherbina
  • Zvi Roth
  • Amos Nussinovitch
Research Article

Abstract

Essential oils are used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Despite the recent marketing of novel essential-oil-containing patches, there is no information on their production, constituents, or physical properties. The objectives of this study were to produce essential-oil patches and characterize their physical properties. The essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) was included at concentrations of 2.5% to 10% in patches manufactured from the exudate gum karaya, propylene glycol, glycerol, emulsifier, and optionally, potato starch as filler. Inclusion of essential oil reduced patch strength, stiffness, and elasticity relative to patches without essential oil. Inclusion of starch in the essential-oil patches strengthened them, but reduced their elasticity. Patches' adhesion to substrate was examined by both peeling and probe-tack tests: the higher the inclusion of essential oils within the patch, the larger the decrease in its adhesion to substrate. Addition of starch to essential-oil-containing patches increased their adhesion relative to their essential-oil-only counterparts. Scanning electron micrographs of the patches provided evidence of entrapped starch granules. Although inclusion of essential oil reduced both the mechanical properties and adhesion of the patches, a high proportion of essential oil can still be included without losing patch integrity or eliminating its adhesiveness to the skin.

KEY WORDS

adhesion degree of elasticity drug-in-adhesive essential oil filler patch 

References

  1. 1.
    Price S, Price L. Aromatherapy for health professionals. London: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2007.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wattenberg L. Inhibition of carcinogenesis by minor dietary constituents. Cancer Res. 1992;52:2085–91.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Morse M, Stoner G. Cancer chemoprevention: principle and prospects. Carcinogenesis. 1993;14:1737–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mansour M, Ginawi O, El-Hadiyah T, El-Khatib A, Al-Shabanah O, Al-Sawaf H. Effects of volatile oil constituents of Nigella sativa on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice: evidence for antioxidant effects of thymoquinone. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 2001;110:239–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bodake H, Panicker K, Kailaje V, Rao V. Chemopreventive effect of orange oil on the development of hepatic preneoplastic lesions induced by N- nitrosodiethylamine in rats: an ultrastructural study. Indian J Exp Biol. 2002;40:245–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ozbek H, Ugras S, Dulger H, et al. Hepatoprotective effect of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil. Fitoterapia. 2003;74:317–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jiri R, Parija T, Das B. d-Limonene chemoprevention of hepatocarcinogenesis in AKR mice: inhibition of c-jun and c-myc. Oncol Rep. 1999;6:1123–7.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Guyton K, Kensler T. Prevention of liver cancer. Curr Oncol Rep. 2002;4:464–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Parija T, Das B. Involvement of YY1 and its correlation with c-myc in NDEA induced hepatocarcinogenesis, its prevention by d-limonene. Mol Biol Rep. 2003;30:41–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Warnke PH, Becker ST, Podschun R, et al. The battle against multi-resistant strains: renaissance of antimicrobial essential oils as a promising force to fight hospital-acquired infections. J Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. 2009;37:392–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Woollard AC, Tatham KC, Barker S. The influence of essential oils on the process of wound healing: a review of the current evidence. J Wound Care. 2007;16:255–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Komiya M, Sugiyama A, Tanabe K, Uchino T, Takeuchi T. Evaluation of the effect of topical application of lavender oil on autonomic nerve activity in dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2009;70:764–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ballabenia V, Tognolinia M, Chiavarinia M, et al. Novel antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities of essential oil from Lavandula hybrida Reverchon ‘grosso’. Phytomedicine. 2004;11:596–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rees WDW, Evans BK, Rhodes J. Treating irritable bowel syndrome with peppermint oil. Br Med J. 1979;2:835.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Somerville KW, Richmond GD, Bell GD. Delayed release peppermint oil capsules (Colpermin) for the spastic colon syndrome: a pharmacokinetic study. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1984;18:638.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gelal A, Jacob III P, Yu L, Benowitz NL. Disposition kinetics and effects of menthol. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1999;66:128–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Marzulli FN, Maibach HI. Dermatotoxicology. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1977.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jäger W, Buchbauer G, Jirovetz L, Fritzer M. Percutaneous absorption of lavender oil from a massage oil. J Soc Cosmet Chem. 1992;43:49–54.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Aulton ME. Pharmaceutics: the science of dosage form design. London: Elsevier Limited, Churchill Livingstone; 2002.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kampf N, Nussinovitch A. Rheological characterization of κ-carrageenan soy-milk gels. Food Hydrocolloids. 1997;11:261–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Helmreich S, Nussinovitch A. Elasticity determination of adhesive patches with filler inclusion. J Adhes Sci Technol. 2009;23:269–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Olkku JE, Sherman P. Compression testing of cylindrical samples with an Instron Universal Testing machine. In: Sherman P, editor. Food texture and rheology. London: Academic Press; 1979. p. 157.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mohsenin NN. Physical properties of plant and animal materials. 2nd ed. New York: Gordon & Breach; 1986.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kaletunic G, Normand MD, Johnson EA, Peleg M. Degree of elasticity determination in solid foods. J Food Sci. 2006;56:950–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nussinovitch A, Kaletunc G, Normand MD, Peleg M. Recoverable work versus asymptotic relaxation modulus in agar, carrageenan and gellan gels. J Texture Stud. 1990;21:427–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Thomas GB, Finney RL. Calculus and analytic geometry. Reading: Addison Wesley; 1984.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Charkoudian JC. Model human skin. 1989. US Patent #4,877,454.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Charkoudian JC. A model skin surface for testing adhesion to skin. J Soc Cosmet Chem. 1988;39:225–34.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ben-Zion O, Nussinovitch A. A modified apparatus for testing the probe tack of pressure-sensitive adhesive materials. J Adhes Sci Technol. 2008;22:205–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Portelli GB. Testing, analysis and design of structural adhesive joints. In: Hartshorn SR, editor. Structural adhesives chemistry and technology. New York: Plenum Press; 1986. p. 407–49.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ben-Zion O, Nussinovitch A. Physical properties of hydrocolloid wet glues. Food Hydrocolloids. 1997;11:429–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nussinovitch A. Hydrocolloid applications: gum technology in the food and other industries. London: Blackie Academic & Professional; 1997. p. 134–7. 234–46.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nussinovitch A. In: Water-soluble polymer applications in foods. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2003. p. 19–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nussinovitch A, Shcherbina Y, Roth Z. Adhesive-elastic-swellable-reusable natural expressed/essential oil topical patches. US patent application. 2009.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nussinovitch A, Peleg M. Mechanical properties of a raspberry product texturized with alginate. J Food Process Preserv. 1990;14:267–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rassis DK, Saguy IS, Nussinovitch A. Collapse, shrinkage and structural changes in dried alginate gels containing fillers. Food Hydrocolloids. 2002;16:139–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gal A, Nussinovitch A. Hydrocolloid carriers with filler inclusion for dilitaizm hydrocholoride release. J Pharm Sci. 2007;96:168–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    De Paepe K, Lagarde JM, Gall Y, Roseeuw D, Rogiers V. Microrelief of the skin using a light transmission method. Arch Dermatol Res. 2000;292:500–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ben-Yaakov A. Properties of tree gum exudate patches for transdermal and topical drug delivery. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel: M.Sc. Thesis; 2007.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ghosh TK, Pfister WR, Yum SI. Transdermal and topical drug delivery systems. Illinois: Interpharm Press; 1997.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Department of Biochemistry, Food Science and NutritionThe Hebrew University of JerusalemRehovotIsrael
  2. 2.The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Department of Animal SciencesThe Hebrew University of JerusalemRehovotIsrael

Personalised recommendations