In vitro Permeability Enhancement in Intestinal Epithelial Cells (Caco-2) Monolayer of Water Soluble Quaternary Ammonium Chitosan Derivatives
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a type of hydrophobic moiety, extent of N-substitution (ES), and degree of quaternization (DQ) of chitosan (CS) on the transepithelial electrical resistance and permeability of Caco-2 cells monolayer, using fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran 4,400 (FD-4) as the model compound for paracellular tight junction transport. CS was substituted with hydrophobic moiety, an aliphatic aldehyde (n-octyl) or aromatic aldehyde (benzyl), for the improved hydrophobic interaction with cell membrane, and they were quaternized with Quat-188 to render CS soluble. The factors affecting the epithelial permeability have been evaluated in the intestinal cell monolayers, Caco-2 cells. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by using the trypan blue and MTT viability assay. The results revealed that at pH 7.4 CSQ appeared to increase cell permeability in dose-dependent manner, and this effect was relatively reversible at the lower doses of 0.05–1.25 mM. The higher DQ and ES caused the higher permeability of FD-4. Cytotoxicity of CSQ was concentration, %DQ, and %ES dependent. Substitution with hydrophobic moiety caused decreasing in permeability of FD-4 and cytotoxicity by benzyl group had more effect than octyl group. These studies demonstrated that these novel modified chitosan derivatives had potential for using as absorption enhancers.
Key wordsabsorption enhancer Caco-2 cells permeability quaternary ammonium chitosan derivatives
N-Benzyl chitosan Quat-188
Degree of Quat-188
The extent of N-substitution
Fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran 4,400
3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide
N-Octyl chitosan Quat-188
The transepithelial electrical resistance
Methylated N-(4-N,N-dimethylaminobenzyl) chitosan
The authors wish to thank Commission of Higher Education (Thailand), The Thailand Research Funds through the Golden Jubilee Ph.D. Program (Grant No. PHD/0114/2550), The National Research Council of Thailand, and Silpakorn University Research and Development Institute for financial support.
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