AAPS PharmSciTech

, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 571–576 | Cite as

Wax-incorporated Emulsion Gel Beads of Calcium Pectinate for Intragastric Floating Drug Delivery

  • Pornsak Sriamornsak
  • Panida Asavapichayont
  • Jurairat Nunthanid
  • Manee Luangtana-anan
  • Sontaya Limmatvapirat
  • Suchada Piriyaprasarth
Research Article


The purpose of this study was to prepare wax-incorporated pectin-based emulsion gel beads using a modified emulsion-gelation method. The waxes in pectin–olive oil mixtures containing a model drug, metronidazole, were hot-melted, homogenized and then extruded into calcium chloride solution. The beads formed were separated, washed with distilled water and dried for 12 h. The influence of various types and amounts of wax on floating and drug release behavior of emulsion gel beads of calcium pectinate was investigated. The drug-loaded gel beads were found to float on simulated gastric fluid if the sufficient amount of oil was used. Incorporation of wax into the emulsion gel beads affected the drug release. Water-soluble wax (i.e. polyethylene glycol) increased the drug release while other water-insoluble waxes (i.e. glyceryl monostearate, stearyl alcohol, carnauba wax, spermaceti wax and white wax) significantly retarded the drug release. Different waxes had a slight effect on the drug release. However, the increased amount of incorporated wax in the formulations significantly sustained the drug release while the beads remained floating. The results suggest that wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads could be used as a carrier for intragastric floating drug delivery.

Key words

calcium pectinate emulsion gel beads floating intragastric drug delivery pectin wax 



The authors thank K. Kuakoon for laboratory assistance and Food & Cosmetic System Co., Ltd. (Thailand) for supplying pectin samples manufactured by CP Kelco (Denmark). Financial support from Faculty of Pharmacy, Silpakorn University is greatly appreciated.


  1. 1.
    A. Streubel, J. Siepmann, and R. Bodmeier. Drug delivery to the upper small intestine window using gastroretention technologies. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 6:501–508 (2006).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. J. Moes. Gastroretentive dosage forms. Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst. 10:143–195 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. P. Cooreman, P. Krausgrill, and K. J. Hengels. Local gastric and serum amoxycilline concentrations after different oral application forms. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 37:1506–1509 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. S. Davis. Formulation strategies for absorption windows. Drug Discov Today. 10:249–257 (2005).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    I. Krogel, and R. Bodmeier. Development of a multifunctional matrix drug delivery system surrounded by an impermeable cylinder. J Control Release. 61:43–50 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Desai, and S. Bolton. A floating controlled release drug delivery system: in-vitroin-vivo evaluation. Pharm Res. 10:1321–1325 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. Streubel, J. Siepmann, and R. Bodmeier. Floating microparticles based on low density foam powder. Int J Pharm. 241:279–292 (2002).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. T. Grant, E. R. Morris, D. A. Rees, P. J. A. Smith, and D. Thom. Biological interactions between polysaccharides and divalent cations: The egg-box model. FEBS Lett. 32:195–198 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    P. Sriamornsak, and J. Nunthanid. Calcium pectinate gel beads for controlled release drug delivery: I. Preparation and in-vitro release studies. Int J Pharm. 160:207–212 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    P. Sriamornsak, and J. Nunthanid. Calcium pectinate gel beads for controlled release drug delivery: II. Effect of formulation and processing variables on drug release. J Microencapsul. 16:303–313 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    P. Sriamornsak. Investigation of pectin as a carrier for oral delivery of proteins: using calcium pectinate gel beads. Int J Pharm. 169:213–220 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. Sriamornsak. Effect of calcium concentration, hardening agent and drying condition on release characteristics of oral proteins from calcium pectinate gel beads. Eur J Pharm Sci. 8:221–227 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    O. Chambin, G. Dupuis, D. Champion, A. Voilley, and Y. Pourcelot. Colon-specific drug delivery: Influence of solution reticulation properties upon pectin beads performance. Int J Pharm. 321:86–93 (2006).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. Sriamornsak. Chemistry of pectin and its pharmaceutical uses: A review. Silpakorn Univ Int J. 3:206–228 (2003).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    P. Sriamornsak, N. Thirawong, and S. Puttipipatkhachorn. Morphology and buoyancy of oil-entrapped calcium pectinate gel beads. AAPS J. 2004;6(3):article 24. (
  16. 16.
    P. Sriamornsak, N. Thirawong, and S. Puttipipatkhachorn. Emulsion gel beads of calcium pectinate capable of floating on the gastric fluid: effect of some additives, hardening agent or coating on release behavior of metronidazole. Eur J Pharm Sci. 24:363–373 (2005).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    S. S. Badve, P. Sher, A. Korde, and A. P. Pawar. Development of hollow/porous calcium pectinate beads for floating-pulsatile drug delivery. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 65:85–93 (2007).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    P. Sriamornsak, S. Sungthogjeen, and S. Puttipipatkhachorn. Use of pectin as a carrier for intragastric floating drug delivery: Carbonate salt contained beads. Carbohydr Polym. 67:436–445 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. Leroux, V. Langendorff, G. Schick, V. Vaishnav, and J. Mazoyer. Emulsion stabilizing properties of pectin. Food Hydrocolloids. 17:455–462 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    N. Garti, and D. Reichman. Hydrocolloids as food emulsifiers and stabilizers. Food Structure. 12:411–426 (1993).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    D. Poncelet, V. G. Babak, R. J. Neufeld, M. F. A. Goosen, and B. Burgarski. Theory of electrostatic dispersion of polymer solutions in the production of microgel beads containing biocatalyst. Adv Colloid Interface Sci. 79:213–228 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. K. Kumar, M. H. Shah, A. Ketkar, K. R. Mahadik, and A. Paradkar. Effect of drug solubility and different excipients on floating behaviour and release from glyceryl monooleate matrices. Int J Pharm. 272:151–160 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    L. Rodriguez, N. Passerinim, C. Cavallari, M. Cini, P. Sancin, and A. Fini. Description and preliminary evaluation of a new ultrasonic atomizer for spray-congealing processes. Int J Pharm. 183:133–143 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. Ozyazici, E. H. Gokce, and G. Ertan. Release and diffusional modelling of metronidazole lipid matrices. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 63:331–339 (2006).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    F. Zhou, C. Vervaet, and J. P. Remon. Matrix pellets based on the combination of waxes, starches and maltodextrins. Int J Pharm. 133:155–160 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Q. R. Cao, T. W. Kim, and B. J. Lee. Photoimages and the release characteristics of lipophilic matrix tablets containing highly water-soluble potassium citrate with high drug loadings. Int J Pharm. 339:19–24 (2007).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pornsak Sriamornsak
    • 1
    • 2
  • Panida Asavapichayont
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jurairat Nunthanid
    • 1
    • 2
  • Manee Luangtana-anan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sontaya Limmatvapirat
    • 1
    • 2
  • Suchada Piriyaprasarth
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of PharmacySilpakorn UniversityNakhon PathomThailand
  2. 2.Pharmaceutical Biopolymer Group (PBiG), Faculty of PharmacySilpakorn UniversityNakhon PathomThailand

Personalised recommendations