Investigation of the Mechanism of Therapeutic Protein-Drug Interaction Between Methotrexate and Golimumab, an Anti-TNFα Monoclonal Antibody
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A prominent example of human therapeutic protein-drug interaction (TP-DI) is between methotrexate (MTX) and anti-TNFα mAbs. One plausible mechanism for this TP-DI is through the pharmacodynamic effect of MTX on immunogenicity. However, there is no definitive evidence to substantiate this mechanism, and other competing hypotheses, such as MTX suppressing FcγRI expression thereby affecting mAb PK, have also been proposed. In order to understand this mechanism, a cynomolgus monkey study was conducted using golimumab as a model compound. Golimumab elicited high incidences of immunogenicity in healthy cynomolgus monkeys. Concomitant dosing of MTX delayed the onset and reduced the magnitude of anti-drug antibody (ADA) formation. The impact of MTX on golimumab PK correlated with the ADA status. Prior to ADA formation, MTX has no discernable effect on golimumab PK. Additionally, no alteration in FcγRI expression was observed following MTX treatment. The impact of MTX on golimumab immunogenicity and PK has been observed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and ankylosing spondylitis. In a representative phase 3 study of golimumab in patients with PsA, patients not receiving concomitant MTX was reported to have ~ 30% lower steady-state trough golimumab levels compared to those who received MTX. However, further analysis showed that PsA patients who were negative for ADA in both treatment groups had comparable trough levels of golimumab. Taken together, our results suggest that the mechanism of TP-DI between MTX and golimumab can mostly be attributed to the pharmacodynamic effect of MTX, i.e., the lowering of immunogenicity and immunogenicity-mediated clearance of mAbs.
KEY WORDSgolimumab immunogenicity methotrexate pharmacokinetics therapeutic protein-drug interaction (TP-DI)
We thank Dr. Yang Wang for help with coordination of the monkey study and Drs. Gopi Shankar and Songmao Zheng for helpful scientific discussion and critical review of the manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) of WuXi AppTec.
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