Vaccinomics: Current Findings, Challenges and Novel Approaches for Vaccine Development
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Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in a field of vaccinology that we have named vaccinomics. The overall idea behind vaccinomics is to identify genetic and other mechanisms and pathways that determine immune responses, and thereby provide new candidate vaccine approaches. Considerable data show that host genetic polymorphisms act as important determinants of innate and adaptive immunity to vaccines. This review highlights examples of the role of immunogenetics and immunogenomics in understanding immune responses to vaccination, which are highly variable across the population. The influence of HLA genes, non-HLA, and innate genes in inter-individual variations in immune responses to viral vaccines are examined using population-based gene/SNP association studies. The ability to understand relationships between immune response gene variants and vaccine-specific immunity may assist in designing new vaccines. At the same time, application of state-of-the-art next-generation sequencing technology (and bioinformatics) is desired to provide new genetic information and its relationship to the immune response.
Key wordsgenetic association HLA immunogenetics polymorphisms SNPs vaccines vaccinomics
We thank our subjects and their parents who participated in our studies and the Mayo Clinic Vaccine Research Group staff. We thank Richard B. Kennedy for help in preparing the figure. This work was supported by NIH grants AI 48793, AI 33144 and 1 UL1 RR024150-01 from the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR), a component of the National Institutes of Health, and the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official view of NCRR or NIH.
Dr. Poland is the chair of a Safety Evaluation Committee for an investigational vaccine trials being conducted by Merck Research Laboratories. Dr. Poland offers consultative advice on new vaccine development to Merck & Co., Inc., Avianax, Theraclone Sciences (formally Spaltudaq Corporation), MedImmune LLC, Liquidia Technologies, Inc., Emergent BioSolutions, Novavax, Dynavax, EMD Serono, Inc., Novartis Vaccines and Therapeutics and PAXVAX, Inc.
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