AAPS PharmSciTech

, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp E209–E222 | Cite as

Papain entrapment in alginate beads for stability improvement and site-specific delivery: Physicochemical characterization and factorial optimization using neural network modeling

  • Mayur G. Sankalia
  • Rajshree C. Mashru
  • Jolly M. Sankalia
  • Vijay B. Sutariya


This work examines the influence of various process parameters (like sodium alginate concentration, calcium chloride concentration, and hardening time) on papain entrapped in ionotropically cross-linked alginate beads for stability improvement and site-specific delivery to the small intestine using neural network modeling. A 33 full-factorial design and feed-forward neural network with multilayer perceptron was used to investigate the effect of process variables on percentage of entrapment, time required for 50% and 90% of the enzyme release, particle size, and angle of repose. Topographical characterization was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, and entrapment was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Times required for 50% (T50) and 90% (T90) of enzyme release were increased in all 3 of the process variables. Percentage entrapment and particle size were found to be directly proportional to sodium alginate concentration and inversely proportional to calcium chloride concentration and hardening time, whereas angle of repose and degree of cross-linking showed exactly opposite proportionality. Beads with >90% entrapment and T50 of <10 minutes could be obtained at the low levels of all 3 of the process variables. The inability of beads to dissolve in acidic environment, with complete dissolution in buffer of pH≥6.8, showed the suitability of beads to release papain into the small intestine. The shelf-life of the capsules prepared using the papain-loaded alginate beads was found to be 3.60 years compared with 1.01 years of the marketed formulation. It can be inferred from the above results that the proposed methodology can be used to prepare papain-loaded alginate beads for stability improvement and site-specific delivery.


alginate beads neural network multilayer perceptron optimization papain 


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Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mayur G. Sankalia
    • 1
  • Rajshree C. Mashru
    • 1
  • Jolly M. Sankalia
    • 1
  • Vijay B. Sutariya
    • 1
  1. 1.Center of Relevance and Excellence in NDDSThe Maharaja Sayajirao University of BarodaVadodaraIndia

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