AAPS PharmSciTech

, 20:103 | Cite as

Spray-Dried PulmoSphere™ Formulations for Inhalation Comprising Crystalline Drug Particles

  • Jeffry G. WeersEmail author
  • Danforth P. Miller
  • Thomas E. Tarara
Review Article Theme: Paul Myrdal Memorial Issue - Pharmaceutical Formulation and Aerosol Sciences
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Theme: Paul Myrdal Memorial Issue - Pharmaceutical Formulation and Aerosol Sciences


Over the past 20 years, solution-based spray dried powders have transformed inhaled product development, enabling aerosol delivery of a wider variety of molecules as dry powders. These include inhaled proteins for systemic action (e.g., Exubera®) and high-dose inhaled antibiotics (e.g., TOBI® Podhaler™). Although engineered particles provide several key advantages over traditional powder processing technologies (e.g., spheronized particles and lactose blends), the physicochemical stability of the amorphous drug present in these formulations brings along its own unique set of constraints. To this end, a number of approaches have been developed to maintain the crystallinity of drugs throughout the spray drying process. One approach is to spray dry suspensions of micronized drug(s) from a liquid feed. In this method, minimization of drug particle dissolution in the liquid feed is critical, as dissolved drug is converted into amorphous domains in the spray-dried drug product. The review explores multiple formulation and engineering strategies for decreasing drug dissolution independent of the physicochemical properties of the drug(s). Strategies to minimize particle dissolution include spray blending of particles of different compositions, formation of respirable agglomerates of micronized drug with small porous carrier particles, and use of common ions. The formulations extend the range of doses that can be delivered with a portable inhaler from about 100 ng to 100 mg. The spray-dried particles exhibit significant advantages in terms of lung targeting and dose consistency relative to conventional lactose blends, while still maintaining the crystallinity of drug(s) in the formulated drug product.


PulmoSphere™ spray blending respirable agglomerates inhalation 



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Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffry G. Weers
    • 1
    Email author
  • Danforth P. Miller
    • 1
  • Thomas E. Tarara
    • 1
  1. 1.Respira Therapeutics, Inc.San MateoUSA

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