Antioxidant Potential and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Activity of Orotic Acid-Loaded Gum Arabic Nanoparticles
- 52 Downloads
Orotic acid (OA) nanoparticles were prepared using the freeze-drying method. The antihypertensive activity and antioxidant capacity of OA and orotic acid-loaded gum arabic nanoparticles (OAGANPs) were examined using the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), and β-carotene assays, as well as the quantification of total phenolic content (TPC). The DPPH and NO scavenging activities of OAGANPs were significantly higher than those of the OA solution. The β-carotene bleaching assay of OAGANPs showed a dose-dependent trend, while 500 μg/ml was significantly more effective than the other concentrations, which exerted 63.4% of the antioxidant activity. The in vitro antihypertensive assay revealed that the OAGANPs exhibited the most potent ACE inhibition activity, when compared to the OA solution. Hence, results revealed the potential of preparing the OA as a nanoparticle formulation in enhancing the antioxidant and antihypertensive properties compared to the OA solution.
KEY WORDSantioxidant antihypertensive nanoparticles radical scavenging
The authors would like to acknowledge the Universiti Putra Malaysia and Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering for awarding the funds to conduct this research under project number GP-IPS/2016/9505500.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.
- 3.Kovanda F, Jindova E, Doušová B, Kolousek D, Plestil J, et al. Layered double hydroxides intercalated with organic anions and their application in preparation of ldh/polymer nanocomposites. Acta Geodyn Geomater. 2009;6:111–9 https://www.irsm.cas.cz/materialy/acta_content/2009_01/8_Kovanda.pdf. Accessed January 2009
- 11.Vij N, Min T, Marasigan R, Belcher CN, Mazur S, Ding H, et al. Development of PEGylated PLGA nanoparticle for controlled and sustained drug delivery in cystic fibrosis. J Nanobiotechnology. 2010:1–18. https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-3155-8-22.
- 13.Manuel P, Atul A, Sudip N, et al. Synthesis of biocompatible dextran-coated nanoceria with pH-dependent antioxidant properties. Communications. 2008:552–6. https://doi.org/10.1002/smll.200700824.
- 20.Motlagh S, Ravines P, Karamallah KA, Ma Q, et al. The analysis of Acacia gums using electrophoresis. Food Hydrocoll. 2006;20:848–54. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-277X.1989.tb00017.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.Verbeken MD. Exudate gums: occurrence, production, and applications. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2003:10–21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-003-1354-z.
- 30.Hueso-Urefia F, Moreno-Carretero MN, Salas-Peregrin JM, Inorgfinica DDQ, De Ciencias F, De Granada U, et al. Silver (I), palladium (II), platinurn (II) and platinum (IV) complexes with isoorotate and 2-thioisoorotate ligands: synthesis, I.R. and N.M.R. spectra, thermal behaviour and antimicrobial activity. Transit Met Chem. 1995;269:262–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 31.Dodin G, Dubois J. Tautomerism of orotic acid dianion. Effect of calcium and magnesium cations on the tautomeric constant and on tautomerization dynamics. J Am Chem Soc. 1980:3049–56. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00529a030.
- 35.Ranneh Y, Ali F, Al QM, Esa NM, Ismail A, et al. The inhibitory activity of cocoa phenolic extract against pro-inflammatory mediators secretion induced by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells. Springer plus. 2016:547. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-2138-0.
- 41.Ara N, Nur H. In vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic leaves and flowers extracts of Lippia Alba. Res J Med Med Sci. 2009;4(1):107–10.Google Scholar
- 44.Ao JIB, Ai YIC, Un MEIS, Ang GUW, Orke HAC, et al. Anthocyanins, flavonols, and free radical scavenging activity of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) extracts and their color properties and stability. J Agric Food Chem. 2005:2–7. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf048312z.
- 45.Soren S, Jena SR, Samanta L, et al. Antioxidant potential and toxicity study of the cerium oxide nanoparticles synthesized by microwave-mediated synthesis. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2015:148–61. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12010-015-1734-8.
- 49.Felipe C, Rodrigues C, Matias S, Alencar D, Thomazini M, De Carvalho JC, et al. Assessment of production efficiency, physicochemical properties and storage stability of spray-dried propolis, a natural food additive, using gum arabic and OSA starch-based carrier systems. Food Bioprod Process. 2012;91(1):28–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2012.08.006.