Systematic Evaluation of a Diclofenac-Loaded Carboxymethyl Cellulose-Based Wound Dressing and Its Release Performance with Changing pH and Temperature
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Development of drug-loaded wound dressings is often performed without systematic consideration of the changing wound environment that can influence such materials’ performance. Among the crucial changes are the wound pH and temperature, which have an immense effect on the drug release. Detailed release studies based on the consideration of these changing properties provide an important aspect of the in vitro performance testing of novel wound dressing materials. A sodium carboxymethyl cellulose-based wound dressing, with the incorporated non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac, was developed and characterised in regard to its physico-chemical, structural and morphological properties. Further, the influence of pH and temperature were studied on the drug release. Finally, the biocompatibility of the wound dressing towards human skin cells was tested. Incorporation of diclofenac did not alter important properties (water retention value, air permeability) of the host material. Changes in the pH and temperature were shown to influence the release performance and have to be accounted for in the evaluation of such dressings. Furthermore, the knowledge about the potential changes of these parameters in the wound bed could be used potentially to predict, and potentially even to control the drug release from the developed wound dressing. The prepared wound dressing was also proven biocompatible towards human skin cells, making it interesting for potential future use in the clinics.
KEY WORDSwound care controlled drug release pH change temperature change diclofenac
Advanced Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium
Attenuated total reflectance-infrared
Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium
Fetal bovine serum
Aneuploid immortal keratinocyte cell line
(3(4,5 dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose
Non-steroid anti-inflammatory pain-killing drugs
Phosphate buffer solution
Scanning electron microscopy
Human skin fibroblasts
The authors acknowledge Prof. Dr. Elsa Fabbretti for kindly providing us HACAT cells.
This study received financial support from the Slovenian Research Agency for Research Core Funding No. P2-0118, P3-0036 and P3-0371 and the financial support through Project No. Z2-8168.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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