AAPS PharmSciTech

, Volume 19, Issue 8, pp 3650–3660 | Cite as

Lipomers (Lipid-polymer Hybrid Particles) of Vardenafil Hydrochloride: a Promising Dual Platform for Modifying the Drug Release Rate and Enhancing Its Oral Bioavailability

  • Mai Ahmed TawfikEmail author
  • Mina Ibrahim Tadros
  • Magdy Ibrahim Mohamed
Research Article Theme: Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Strategies for Oral Drug Delivery
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Theme: Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Strategies for Oral Drug Delivery


Vardenafil hydrochloride is commonly used for the curing of erectile dysfunction. VAR suffers certain limitations: (i) short elimination half-life (4–5 h), (ii) low aqueous solubility (0.11 mg/mL), (iii) susceptibility to extensive first-pass metabolism and drug efflux transporters (p-glycoprotein), and (iv) limited (15%) oral bioavailability. The current study focused on the development of VAR lipomers as promising modified release systems able to enhance oral bioavailability. VAR-lipomers (lipid-polymer complexes) were successfully developed by a modified precipitation technique employing a lipid (polyglyceryl-6-distearate or glyceryl tristearate) and an amphiphilic polymer (Gantrez®). Three VAR:lipid ratios [1:1, 1:2, and 1:3] and three VAR:Gantrez® ratios [4:1, 2:1, and 1:1] were investigated. Solid-state characterization studies involved differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The systems were assessed for particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta-potential, VAR entrapment-efficiency (EE%), morphology, and VAR released % after 2 h (Q2h) and 8 h (Q8h). The best-achieved system (the highest desirability) was promoted for pharmacokinetic studies in fasted rabbits. Statistical analysis of data revealed that L9 system (PGDS, VAR, and Gantrez®; 3:1:1, respectively) had the highest desirability (0.85) with respect to spherical particle size (622.15 nm), PDI (0.11), zeta-potential (−27.90 mV), EE% (62.80%), Q2h (43.45%), and Q8h (77.40%). With respect to Levitra® tablets, the significantly higher relative bioavailability (170%), delayed Tmax, and extended MRT(0–∞) clarified the dual ability of L9 system. Lipomers are emerging systems capable of modifying the rate of VAR release and promoting its oral bioavailability.


vardenafil hydrochloride lipid polymer hybrid particles ionic interaction modified release enhanced oral bioavailability 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mai Ahmed Tawfik
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mina Ibrahim Tadros
    • 1
  • Magdy Ibrahim Mohamed
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of PharmacyCairo UniversityCairoEgypt

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