Third-Generation Transdermal Delivery Systems Containing Zidovudine: Effect of the Combination of Different Chemical Enhancers and a Microemulsion System
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This study aimed to examine the influence of the combination of chemical enhancers and a microemulsion on the transdermal permeation of zidovudine (AZT). Ethanol, 1,8-cineole, and geraniol were incorporated in a microemulsion. The droplet size, zeta potential, rheology, and SAXS analysis were performed. The permeation enhancer effect was evaluated using pig ear skin. Snake skin (Boa constrictor) treated with the formulations was also used as a stratum corneum model and studied by attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy. As a result, it was observed that the incorporation of the chemical enhancers promoted a decrease of the droplet size and some rheological modifications. The 1,8-cineole associated with the microemulsion significantly increased the permeated amount of AZT. Conversely, ethanol significantly increased the quantity of the drug retained in the skin. The probable mechanism for the cineole and ethanol effects was respectively: fluidization and increasing of the diffusion coefficient, and increasing of the partition coefficient. Surprising, geraniol + microemulsion drastically decreased both the permeated and the retained amount of AZT into the skin. Thus, the adequate association of microemulsion and chemical enhancers showed to be a crucial step to enable the topical or transdermal use of drugs.
KEY WORDSmicroemulsion chemical enhancer skin permeation transdermal delivery
We also acknowledge the Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncroton (LNLS, Campinas SP, Brazil) for provision of synchrotron radiation facilities. We would like to thank SAXS staff for assistance in using beamline SAXS1 through the approved project number 20160301.
The authors thank CNPq/MCT and CT-FVA for their financial support and the LAFEPE for the AZT donation.
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