The AAPS Journal

, 21:75 | Cite as

“Development of Fixed Dose Combination Products” Workshop Report: Considerations of Gastrointestinal Physiology and Overall Development Strategy

  • Bart HensEmail author
  • Maura Corsetti
  • Marival Bermejo
  • Raimar Löbenberg
  • Pablo M. González
  • Amitava Mitra
  • Divyakant Desai
  • Dakshina Murthy Chilukuri
  • Alexis Aceituno
Meeting Report


The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is one of the most popular and used routes of drug product administration due to the convenience for better patient compliance and reduced costs to the patient compared to other routes. However, its complex nature poses a great challenge for formulation scientists when developing more complex dosage forms such as those combining two or more drugs. Fixed dose combination (FDC) products are two or more single active ingredients combined in a single dosage form. This formulation strategy represents a novel formulation which is as safe and effective compared to every mono-product separately. A complex drug product, to be dosed through a complex route, requires judicious considerations for formulation development. Additionally, it represents a challenge from a regulatory perspective at the time of demonstrating bioequivalence (BE) for generic versions of such drug products. This report gives the reader a summary of a 2-day short course that took place on the third and fourth of November at the Annual Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS) meeting in 2018 at Washington, D.C. This manuscript will offer a comprehensive view of the most influential aspects of the GI physiology on the absorption of drugs and current techniques to help understand the fate of orally ingested drug products in the complex environment represented by the GI tract. Through case studies on FDC product development and regulatory issues, this manuscript will provide a great opportunity for readers to explore avenues for successfully developing FDC products and their generic versions.


bioequivalence fixed dose combination drug products formulation prediction in vivo predictions gastrointestinal physiology 


Funding Information

The authors received financial support from the Flemish Research Council (FWO – applicant number: 12R2119N).

Compliance with Ethical Standards


This report represents the scientific views of the authors and not necessarily that of the regulatory authorities presented in this manuscript (U.S. Food and Drug Administration and ANAMED).


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Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bart Hens
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maura Corsetti
    • 2
    • 3
  • Marival Bermejo
    • 4
  • Raimar Löbenberg
    • 5
  • Pablo M. González
    • 6
  • Amitava Mitra
    • 7
  • Divyakant Desai
    • 8
  • Dakshina Murthy Chilukuri
    • 9
  • Alexis Aceituno
    • 10
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical & Pharmacological SciencesKU LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  2. 2.NIHR Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre (BRC)Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and the University of NottinghamNottinghamUK
  3. 3.Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre, School of MedicineUniversity of NottinghamNottinghamUK
  4. 4.Department Engineering Pharmacy SectionMiguel Hernandez UniversityAlicanteSpain
  5. 5.Faculty of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  6. 6.Departamento de Farmacia, Facultad de Química y de FarmaciaPontificia Universidad Católica de ChileSantiagoChile
  7. 7.Clinical DevelopmentSandoz, Inc. (A Novartis Division)PrincetonUSA
  8. 8.Drug Product Science and TechnologyBristol-Myers Squibb CompanyNew BrunswickUSA
  9. 9.Office of Clinical Pharmacology, Office of Translational Sciences, CDER, FDASilver SpringUS Food & Drug Administration (US FDA)Prince Georges CountiesUSA
  10. 10.Subdepto. Biofarmacia y Equivalencia Terapéutica, Agencia Nacional de Medicamentos (ANAMED), Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile, Santiago, Chile y Facultad de FarmaciaUniversidad de ValparaísoValparaísoChile

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