Table 5 Phytochemical components of Peganum harmala ethanolic extract as identified by GC-MS analysis

From: Characterization, antioxidant, and cytotoxic effects of some Egyptian wild plant extracts

Peak no. RT Compound name Area % Molecular formula Class Reported bioactivity References
1 12.21 5-Cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-methylisoquinoline 2.74 C11H12N2 Quinoline derivative No activity reported  
2 13.57 6-Ethoxyquinaldine 6.00 C12H13NO Quinoline derivative No activity reported  
3 15.17 Hexadecanoic acid, ethyl ester 1.44 C18H36O2 Fatty acid Anti-inflammatory [41]
4 15.58 4-Acetamido-1,2,3,4-tetra hydroisoquinoline 1.73 C11H14N2O Quinoline derivative No activity reported  
5 16.57 8,11-Octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester 1.55 C19H34O2 Fatty acid No activity reported  
6 16.66 2,5-Octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester 1.83 C19H30O2 Fatty acid No activity reported  
7 17.57 6-Octadecenoic acid, (Z)- 2.09 C18H34O2 Fatty acid Anticancer and insect repellant [26]
8 19.58 5,8,11,14,17-Eicosapentaenoic acid, methyl ester 2.49 C21H32O2 Fatty acid -Antimicrobial
-Anti-osteoporosis
-Cardio-protective
[42]
[43]
[44]
9 21.24 Hexadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester 63.13 C17H28O2 Fatty acid -Cardio-protective
-Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory
[26]
[31]
10 21.30 Cis-9-octadecenoic acid 11.43 C18H34O2 Fatty acid -Anticancer, anemiagenic, insect repellent, antiandrogenic, dermatitigenic, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, cancer preventive, hepatoprotective, nematicide, antihistaminic, antieczemic, antiacne, alpha reductase inhibitor, antiandrogenic, antiarthritic, and anticoronary [26]
11 21.39 Rhodopin 3.73 C40H58O Carotenoid Antioxidant [26]
12 21.72 4,7,10,13,16,19-Docosahexaenoic acid, methyl ester 3.68 C23H34O2 Fatty acid Dietary DHA is essential for brain functioning and it has a positive effect on diseases such as hypertention, arthritis, atherosclerosis, depression, diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, thrombosis, heart disease, and some cancers [45]
13 22.62 Betamethasone valerate 1.85 C27H37FO6 Corticosteroid Treatment of psoriasis, eczema, and other dermatoses [46]
14 24.51 9-Octadecenamide, (Z)- 2.37 C18H35NO Fatty acid derivative Anti-inflammatory and antibacterial [47]
  1. RT retention time (min)