Table 4 Comparison between the three studied groups according to risk factors

From: Predictors of pacing induced left ventricular dysfunction and cardiomyopathy assessed by three-dimensional echocardiography and speckle tracking strain

Predisposing
factors
No decline in LVEF
(n = 25)
Decline in LVEF χ2 MCp
PIVD
(n = 19)
PICMP(n = 6)
  No. % No. % No. %
Age (years) 67.20 ± 18.54 57.11 ± 14.77 65.17 ± 10.94   
Mean ± SD 5.565 0.062
Sex
 Male 14 56.0 9 47.4 4 66.7 0.790 0.786
 Female 11 44.0 10 52.6 2 33.3   
DM 7 28.0 3 15.8 3 50.0 2.858 0.231
HTN 14 56.0 4 21.1 3 50.0 5.650 0.060
Device type
 VVI 15 60.0 10 52.6 2 33.3 1.410 0.517
 DDD 10 40.0 9 47.4 4 66.7   
Lead site
 RVA 22 88.0 17 89.5 5 83.3 0.592 1.000
 RVS 3 12.0 2 10.5 1 16.7   
Pre-existing BBB
 No BBB 15 60.0 7 36.8 0 0.0   
 RBBB 7 28.0 8 42.1 4 66.7 8.244 0.063
 LBBB 3 12.0 4 21.1 2 33.3   
QRS Axis
 N 4 16.0 3 15.8 1 16.7   
 LF 20 80.0 13 68.4 5 83.3 3.566 0.881
 RT 1 4.0 3 12.0 0 0.0   
QRS width
Pre-pacing      
 Mean ± SD 104.6 ± 27.99 125.0 ± 32.53 141.7 ± 29.94 7.848* 0.020*
Post-pacing      
 Mean ± SD 148.6 ± 22.98 154.2 ± 19.46 156.7 ± 26.58 0.660 0.719
VP%
7 days      
 Mean ± SD 83.40 ± 24.47 81.57 ± 28.32 97.0 ± 7.35 4.136 0.126
6 months      
 Mean ± SD 86.80 ± 23.09 89.11 ± 19.99 100.0 ± 0.0 3.848 0.146
Pacing threshold
7 days      
 Mean ± SD 0.57 ± 0.20 0.61 ± 0.41 0.46 ± 0.10 1.627 0.443
6 months      
 Mean ± SD 0.85 ± 0.49 0.92 ± 0.62 0.83 ± 0.26 0.184 0.912