Table 3 Comparison between the two studied groups according to risk factors

From: Predictors of pacing induced left ventricular dysfunction and cardiomyopathy assessed by three-dimensional echocardiography and speckle tracking strain

Predisposing
factors
Total
(n = 50)
No decline in LVEF
(n = 25)
Decline in LVEF
(n = 25)
χ2 MCp
  No. % No. % No. %
Age (years) 63.12 ± 16.85 67.20 ± 18.54 59.04 ± 14.18   
Mean ± SD 202.00 0.032*
Sex
 Male 27 54.0 14 56.0 13 52.0 0.081 0.777
 Female 23 46.0 11 44.0 12 48.0   
DM 13 26.0 7 28.0 6 24.0 0.104 0.747
HTN 21 42.0 14 56.0 7 28.0 4.023* 0.045*
Device type
 VVI 27 54.0 15 60.0 12 48.0 0.725 0.395
 DDD 23 46.0 10 40.0 13 52.0   
Lead site
 RVA 44 88.0 22 88.0 22 83.0 0.00 1.000
 RVS 6 12.0 3 12.0 3 12.0   
Pre-existing BBB
 No BBB 22 44.0 15 60.0 7 28.0   
 RBBB 19 38.0 7 28.0 12 48.0 5.107 0.083
 LBBB 9 18.0 3 12.0 6 24.0   
QRS axis
 N 8 16.0 4 16.0 4 16.0   
 LF 38 76.0 20 80.0 18 72.0 1.514 0.883
 RT 4 8.0 1 4.0 3 12.0   
QRS width
Pre-pacing      
 Mean ± SD 116.8 ± 32.27 104.6 ± 27.99 129.0 ± 32.15 178.00* 0.008*
Post-pacing
 Mean ± SD 151.7 ± 21.91 148.6 ± 22.98 154.8 ± 20.79 273.00 0.436
VP%
7 days      
 Mean ± SD 84.34 ± 24.83 83.40 ± 24.47 85.27 ± 25.65 285.50 0.588
6 months      
 Mean ± SD 89.26 ± 20.62 86.80 ± 23.09 91.72 ± 17.95 289.00 0.601
Pacing threshold
7 days      
 Mean ± SD 0.57 ± 0.29 0.57 ± 0.20 0.57 ± 0.36 267.50 0.328
6 months      
 Mean ± SD 0.88 ± 0.52 0.85 ± 0.49 0.90 ± 0.55 306.50 0.902