Table 1 Antibacterial activity of cold and hot acetone extracts of neem, madhuca, and simarouba oil-seed cakes

From: The antimicrobial and antioxidant property, GC–MS analysis of non-edible oil-seed cakes of neem, madhuca, and simarouba

Oil-seed cake / extraction solvents/ Standard antibiotics ZI (mm) in test bacterial isolates1
  Extract
Conc (%)
Sa2 Ef2 Se3 Ec3 Pf3
Neem seed-cake
Cold-acetone
  100 0 9.8 ± 0.14 2.9 ± 0.12 2.2 ± 0.17 1.2 ± 0.14
  200 2.9 ± 0.008 12.0 ± 0.11 4.9 ± 0.08 5.2 ± 0.14 5.3 ± 0.11
Hot-acetone
  100 10.0 ± 0.08 0 0 3.0 ± 0.08 1.1 ± 0.08
  200 15.0 ± 0.11 1.3 ± 0.11 4.4 ± 0.08 5.4 ± 0.08 3.0 ± 0.11
Madhuca seed-cake
Cold-acetone4 200 8.1 ± 0.1 0 2.0 ± 0.08 2.2 ± 0.1 2.2 ± 0.1
Simarouba seed-cake
Cold-acetone
  100 10.0 ± 0.08 7.1 ± 0.12 4.2 ± 0.12 0 1.3 ± 0.8
  200 13.9 ± 0.08 10 ± 0.11 18.0 ± 0.15 2.2 ± 0.08 3.2 ± 0.12
Hot-acetone
  100 1.2 ± 0.12 1.1 ± 0.08 12.2 ± 0.12 0 0.5 ± 0.03
  200 2.4 ± 0.08 3.4 ± 0.08 18.9 ± 0.08 5.0 ± 0.08 1.3 ± 0.1
Standards
Amoxicillin 55 11.0 ± 0.1 10.0 ± 0.14 12.0 ± 0.12 11.0 ± 0.17 15 ± 0.08
Ciprofloxacin 5 32.0 ± 0.1 30.0 ± 0.14 32.0 ± 0.12 30.0 ± 0.17 30.0 ± 0.08
Chloramphenicol 5 20.0 ± 0.1 20.0 ± 0.14 21.0 ± 0.12 21.0 ± 0.17 20.0 ± 0.08
DMSO 206 0 0 0 0 0
  1. 1Values are mean of three replicates (n = 3); crude extracts were dissolved in DMSO (200 mg in 1 ml of DMSO) Each well received 20 μL ml−1 (4 mg well−1)
  2. 2Gram-positive bacteria; Sa- Staphylococcus aureus and Ef- Enterococcus faecalis
  3. 3Gram-negative bacteria: Se- Salmonella enterica, Ec- Escherichia coli and Pf- Pseudomonas fluorescens
  4. 4Cold acetone extract of madhuca oil-seed cake inhibited only S. aureus at 100% (ZI = 5.1 ± 0.01)
  5. 55 mg of standards dissolved in 1 ml of DMSO
  6. 620 µL of DMSO (negative control) added to each well