Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of sample

From: Blood pressure in bipolar disorder: evidence of elevated pulse pressure and associations between mean pressure and mood instability

  BD (n = 38) BPD (n = 25) HC (n = 43) Test statistic P Post-hoc
Gender
 Female n (%) 24 (63.2) 22 (88) 29 (67.4) χ2 = 4.881 0.087
Age, year ± SD 39.0 ± 13.1 34.1 ± 11.2 39.84 ± 12.9 F = 1.794 0.171
BMI, kg/m2 ± SD 26.8 ± 4.1 27.4 ± 6.3 24.5 ± 4.3 F = 3.657 0.029 n.s
Smoker, n (%) 7 (21.9) 7 (30.4)) 2 (5) χ2 = 7.818 0.022 BD > HC
BPD > HC
Drinks Alcohol, n (%) 28 (77.8) 14 (58.3) 31 (72) χ2 = 2.691 0.260
Questionnaire assessment
 QIDS, mdn ± IQR 5.5 ± 6.5 12 ± 12.5 2 ± 1.5 χ2 = 50.586  < 0.001 BD > HC
BPD > HC
BPD > BD
 ASRM, mdn ± IQR 1 ± 2 1 ± 3.5 0 ± 0 χ2 = 11.663  < 0.003 BD > HC
BPD > HC
Mood Zoom Items
 anx RMSSD ± IQR 0.87 ± 0.54 1.39 ± 0.58 0.55 ± 0.65 χ2 = 42.81 < 0.001 BD > HC
BPD > HC
BPD > BD
 sad RMSSD ± IQR 0.72 ± 0.71 1.40 ± 0.43 0.31 ± 0.75 χ2 = 41.662  < 0.001 BD > HC
BPD > HC
BPD > BD
 elt RMSSD ± IQR 0.67 ± 0.73 1.14 ± 1.06 0.67 ± 0.88 χ2 = 10.489 0.005 BPD > HC
 enr RMSSD ± IQR 0.93 ± 0.70 1.22 ± 0.90 0.79 ± 0.51 χ2 = 11.558 0.003 BPD > HC
BPD > BD
 ang RMSSD ± IQR 0.71 ± 0.58 1.24 ± 0.97 0.31 ± 0.49 χ2 = 36.695  < 0.001 BD > HC
BPD > HC
BPD > BD
 irr RMSSD ± IQR 0.91 ± 0.71 1.53 ± 1.05 0.48 ± 0.78 χ2 = 39.167  < 0.001 BD > HC
BPD > HC
BPD > BD
Medication
 Using psychotropic medication, n (%) 36 (94.7) 19 (87.3) χ2 = 4.775 0.029
 Lithium 16 (42.1) 0 (0) χ2 = 14.11  < 0.001
 Anticonvulsant 15 (39.5) 1 (4) χ2 = 10.015 0.002
 Antipsychotic 25 (65.8) 5 (20) χ2 = 12.675  < 0.001
 Antidepressant 13 (34.2) 19 (76) χ2 = 10.536 0.001
 Hypnotic 3 (7.9) 1 (1.5) χ2 = 0.339 0.561
 Anxiolytic 1 (2.6) 6 (24) χ2 = 6.971 0.008
  1. F test statistic denotes univariate ANOVA result; χ2 test statistic denotes chi-square test of independence (for categorical data) or Kruskal–Wallis non-parametric test (comparing the medians of continuous variable). IQR  interquartile range, mdn median, SD standard deviation