Table 1 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates circulating in animals and foods in the last decades in Germany.

From: The Animal-foods-environment interface of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Germany: an observational study on pathogenicity, resistance development and the current situation

Source of isolates No. of isolates Resistance pattern Genes detected Locality of samples Year of sampling Authors and year of report Refs.
K. pneumonia in Animals hosts (13 studies)
 Pet, zoo and falconry birds 86 Resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (10.2%), piperacillin-tazobactam (27.5%), enrofloxacin (11.6%), doxycycline (31.6%), sulfonamides (26.6%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (9.1%) ND Southern Germany 2007–2016 Steger et al. 2020 [44]
 Broiler chicken 7 ESBL recovered from a defeathering machine, scalding water, and skin Strains harboring blaSHV-1, blaSHV-2, blaSHV-27 and TEM-1a ND 2015–2016 von Tippelskirch et al. 2018 [43]
 Dogs, cats, guinea pigs, rats, rabbits, mice 86 Resistant to imipenem, ampicillin, piperacillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate combination, fluoroquinolones, and different rates to aminoglycoside (amikacin, tobramycin, and gentamicin) were determined Carbapenemase producer harboring blaOXA-48, 56 ESBL strains, carrying blaCTX-M-15, one with blaCTX-M-27, two with DHA-1 and CMY-2 genes Giessen 2012–2016 Pulss et al. 2018 [37]
 Dogs 2 (PMQR) Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance producers Strains carried native oqxAB genes, with mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of the GyrA and ParC genes ND 2014 de Jong et al. 2018 [39]
 European mouflons (Ovis orientalis musimon) One MDR, ESBL and AmpC phenotype, resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/ clavulanate, cefalotin, cefotaxime, cefoperazone, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, susceptible to imipenem, gentamicin, streptomycin, tetracyclines, and colistin Strains carried the ß-lactamase genes (blaSHV-11, blaOXA-1, and blaDHA-1), plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) gene qnrB55. Mutations in the QRDR regions of the GyrA and ParC genes were not seen ND 2012–2013 Loncaric et al. 2016 [33]
 Horses, dogs, cats 34 MDR, ESBL producers, resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, cefotaxime, cefotaxime, cefepime Strains harbored blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-2 and blaOXA-48, blaTEM-1, blaSHV-1 and PMQR Giessen, Hesse 2009–2011 Schmiedel et al. 2014 [32]
 Horses, dogs, cats 72 ESBL producers, Resistance to fluoroquinolones, gentamicin, tetracycline trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and tobramycin Strains harbored blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-3, blaCTX-M-9, blaSHV-2, blaSHV-12, blaSHV-28 and blaTEM-1 27 towns 2008–2010 Ewers et al. 2014 [31]
 Common free-living reptiles 27 Slowworm (13), Grass snake (7), and European adders (7)
Resistant patterns not determined
ND Island Hidden- see 2012 Schmidt et al., 2014 [48]
 Wildlife birds ND Common among water rails spotted crakes and barn swallows Resistant patterns not determined ND Saxony, Hamburg Brandenburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 2008–2009 Stenkat et al. 2014 [47]
 Dogs 109 MDR, resistance to gentamicin, amikacin, tobramycin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole Five carbapenemase-producing strains harbored blaOXA-48 and ESBL harbored blaCTX-M-15. blaTEM-1, blaSHV-28, blaOXA-1, blaOXA-2 and (PMQR) plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes were expressed Hessia 2012 Stolle et al. 2013 [36]
 Burmese python one Resistant patterns not determined ND Leipzig ND Schroff et al. 2010 [46]
 Domestic pigs ND Resistant patterns not determined ND ND ND Schierack et al. 2007 [41]
 Pigeons 62 Recovered from liver, lung, heart, kidneys, small and large intestine
Resistant patterns not determined
ND Various parts of Germany 2003–2004 Raue et al. 2005 [45]
K. pneumonia in foods (3 studies)
 Black tiger shrimp 13 ESBL and/or AmpC producers, Strains harbored blaSHV (-1a, -2a, -27, -32, -62, -186, -187), blaCTX-M-9, blaDHA-1, blaTEM-1 Berlin 2015–2016 Vu et al., 2018 [54]
 Milk one WGS of novel temperate phage KPP5665-2
Resistant patterns not determined
ND Stuttgart 2016 Carl et al. 2017 [53]
 Uncooked vegetables 9 MDR, resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, cotrimoxazole, tetracycline, sulfamethazine, chloramphenicol, and gentamicin Strains harbored aac(3)-IIc gene Wernigerode/Saxony-Anhalt ND Boehme et al. 2004 [51]
  1. ND: not determined.