Table 2 Mean ± standard deviation of LOAD parameters, and of those 3D alignment parameters which significantly correlated (Pearson’s correlation test) with them

From: Correlations between weight-bearing 3D bone architecture and dynamic plantar pressure measurements in the diabetic foot

  Neuropathic patients (N) Non-neuropathic patients (D) All patients (ALL) Patient with LADA
Load at Hallux
 PP (kPa) 336 ± 116 396 ± 153 363 ± 133 290
 PTI (kPa*s) 69 ± 39 80 ± 36 74 ± 35 61
 PTIN 71 ± 36 93 ± 42 82 ± 39 62
Load at I metatarsal head
 PP (kPa) 391 ± 73a 182 ± 55 279 ± 120 270
 PTI (kPa*s) 102 ± 37b 44 ± 11 71 ± 38 72
 PTIN 107 ± 31c 51 ± 12 77 ± 35 73
Load at II-IV metatarsal heads
 PP (kPa) 477 ± 216 375 ± 146 418 ± 178 355
 PTI (kPa*s) 131 ± 47d 85 ± 31 106 ± 43 96
 PTIN 143 ± 63 98 ± 36 118 ± 52 97
Load at V metatarsal head
 PP (kPa) 283 ± 206 172 ± 108 220 ± 160 165
 PTI (kPa*s) 93 ± 66 53 ± 34 70 ± 53 38
 PTIN 98 ± 68 61 ± 39 76 ± 54 39
Absolute 3D dorsiflexion of phalanx
 I3_P1 (°) −9.6 ± 3.1 −11.4 ± 4.4 −10.8 ± 3.9 −14.7
 I3_P2 (°) 4.9 ± 9.8 5.8 ± 9.1 5.7 ± 8.9 10.0
 I3_P3 (°) 5.7 ± 8.2 2.6 ± 7.8 4.6 ± 7.9 12.8
 I3_P4 (°) 7.2 ± 6.8 1.7 ± 7.6 5.3 ± 8.4 21.3
 I3_P5 (°) 9.4 ± 7.9 3.4 ± 3.6 7.5 ± 8.1 26.9
Relative (metatarsal-phalanx) lateral dorsiflexion
 RL_M1P1 (°) 11.7 ± 6.0 12.8 ± 4.8 12.2 ± 5.1 11.7
 RL_M2P2 (°) 30.4 ± 10.9 32.2 ± 7.0 32.1 ± 9.0 43.4
 RL_M3P3 (°) 27.9 ± 9.9 24.2 ± 6.7 26.8 ± 8.6 39.4
 RL_M4P4 (°) 21.5 ± 7.4 16.9 ± 6.1 20.4 ± 8.7 41.5
 RL_M5P5 (°) 16.1 ± 8.4 12.9 ± 4.3 16.1 ± 9.1 40.8
  1. Legend:
  2. aN statistically higher than D (Student’s t-test, p-value < 0.0001)
  3. bN statistically higher than D (Student’s t-test, p-value = 0.0052)
  4. cN statistically higher than D (Student’s t-test, p-value = 0.0024)
  5. dN statistically higher than D (Student’s t-test, p-value = 0.0494)
  6. Last column on the right contains the corresponding values for the only one LADA patient included in the dataset. Negative Dorsiflexion means Plantarflexion.
  7. LOAD at Hallux correlated with 3D phalanx absolute inclination I3_P1 (N: R2 = 0.59; p-value = 0.045), I3_P3 (ALL: R2 = 0.30; p-value = 0.030) and I3_P5 (D: R2 = 0.62; p-value = 0.020).
  8. LOAD at I metatarsal head correlated with 3D phalanx absolute inclination I3_P4 (N: R2 = 0.80; p-value = 0.007; ALL: R2 = 0.29; p-value = 0.030) and I3_P5 (N: R2 = 0.58; p-value = 0.047; ALL: R2 = 0.25; p-value = 0.048), and with lateral metatarsal-phalanx relative orientation RL_M3P3 (N: R2 = 0.64; p-value = 0.030), RL_M4P4 (N: R2 = 0.85; p-value = 0.003; ALL: R2 = 0.25; p-value = 0.049) and RL_M5P5 (N: R2 = 0.73; p-value = 0.014).
  9. LOAD at II-IV metatarsal heads correlated with 3D phalanx absolute inclination I3_P2 (N: R2 = 0.77; p-value = 0.010; ALL: R2 = 0.42; p-value = 0.007) and I3_P3 (N: R2 = 0.74; p-value = 0.013; ALL: R2 = 0.28; p-value = 0.037), and with lateral metatarsal-phalanx relative orientation RL_M2P2 (N: R2 = 0.76; p-value = 0.011; ALL: R2 = 0.38; p-value = 0.011) and RL_M3P3 (N: R2 = 0.74; p-value = 0.013; ALL: R2 = 0.28; p-value = 0.034).
  10. LOAD at V metatarsal head did not correlate with 3D bone alignment parameters