Table 1 Univariate analyses of risk factors associated with preoperative DVT following tibial plateau fracture

From: Incidence and locations of preoperative deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of lower extremity following tibial plateau fractures: a prospective cohort study

Variables Number (%) of DVT (n = 192) Number (%) of non-DVT (n = 987) P
Gender (male) 139 (72.4) 603 (61.1) 0.003
Age (years) 47.4 ± 11.9 45.2 ± 13.9 0.045
 18–44 81(42.2) 477 (48.3) 0.108
 45–64 96 (50.0) 413 (41.8)  
 65 or older 15 (7.8) 97 (9.8)  
Living place 0.459
 Rural 126 (65.6) 603 (61.1)  
 Urban 66 (34.4) 383 (38.8)  
BMI (kg/m2) 26.0 ± 2.9 25.8 ± 4.1 0.562
 18.5–23.9 44 (23.0) 318 (32.2)  
 < 18.5 2 (1.0) 19 (1.9)  
 24.0–27.9 102 (54.0) 409 (41.4)  
 ≥ 28.0 44 (23.0) 242 (24.5)  
Diabetes mellitus 23 (12.0) 131 (13.3) 0.627
Hypertension 47 (24.5) 167 (16.9) 0.013
Chronic heart disease 14 (7.3) 42 (4.3) 0.070
Chronic liver disease 6 (3.1) 47 (4.8) 0.317
History of any surgery 19 (9.9) 116 (11.8) 0.460
Allergy to any medications 33 (17.2) 121 (12.3) 0.064
Fracture type (Schatzker) 0.022
 I–IV 133 (69.3) 760 (77.0)  
 V–VI 59 (30.7) 326 (23.0)  
Mechanism (high-energy) 120 (62.5) 638 (64.6) 0.571
Open fracture 22 (11.5) 49 (5.0) 0.001
Current smoking 37 (19.3) 129 (13.1) 0.024
Alcohol consumption 20 (10.4) 87 (8.8) 0.480
Total hospital stay 24.8 ± 15.5 19.2 ± 14.6 0.002
ASA class 0.000
 I 29 (15.1) 138 (14.0)  
 II 116 (60.4) 715 (72.4)  
 III or above 47 (24.5) 134 (13.6)  
TP (< 60 g/L) 66 (34.4) 261 (26.4) 0.025
ALB (< 35 g/L) 61 (31.8) 203 (20.6) 0.001
GLOB (< 20 g/L) 22 (11.5) 154 (15.6) 0.140
A/G    0.020
 1.2–2.4 164 (84.5) 883 (89.5)  
 < 1.2 25 (13.0) 73 (7.4)  
 > 2.4 3 (1.6) 31 (3.1)  
ALT (> 40 U/L) 46 (24.0) 180 (18.2) 0.065
AST (> 35 U/L) 33 (17.2) 134 (13.6) 0.189
TBIL (> 21 umol/L) 20 (10.4) 82 (8.3) 0.342
DBIL (> 6umol/L) 69 (35.9) 274 (27.8) 0.022
IBIL (> 14 umol/L) 30 (15.6) 150 (15.2) 0.880
ALP (> 100) 20 (10.4) 41 (4.2) 0.000
LDH (> 250 U/L) 64 (33.3) 214 (21.7) 0.001
TC (> 5.2 mmol/L) 17 (8.9) 121 (12.3) 0.179
TG (> 1.7 mmol/L) 33 (17.2) 167 (16.9) 0.928
HDL-C (< 1.1 mmol/L) 96 (50.0) 388(39.3) 0.006
LDL-C (> 3.37 mmol/L) 27 (14.1) 135(13.7) 0.887
VLDL (> 0.78 mmol/L) 32 (16.7) 162 (16.4) 0.931
Na+ (< 135 mmol/L) 80 (41.7) 286 (29.0) 0.001
CL− (mmol/L) 0.007
 99–110 149 (77.6) 847 (85.8)  
 < 99 40 (20.8) 121 (12.3)  
 > 110 3 (1.6) 19 (1.9)  
GLU (> 6.1 mmol/L) 82 (42.7) 334 (33.8) 0.019
UA (> upper limit) 8 (4.2) 78 (7.9) 0.069
WBC (> 10*109/L) 81 (42.2) 310 (31.4) 0.004
NEUT (> 6.3*109/L) 116 (60.4) 468 (47.4) 0.003
LYM (< 1.1*109/L) 57 (29.7) 283 (28.7) 0.776
MON (> 0.6*109/L) 130 (67.7) 592 (60.0) 0.044
RBC < lower limit 103 (53.6) 388 (39.3) 0.000
HGB < lower limit 131 (68.2) 526 (53.3) 0.000
HCT < lower limit 145 (75.5) 605 (61.3) 0.000
MCV (fL)    0.737
 82–100 176 (91.7) 918 (93.0)  
 < 82 9 (4.7) 35 (3.5)  
 > 100 7 (3.6) 34 (3.4)  
MCH (pg)    0.658
 27–34 176 (91.7) 903 (91.5)  
 < 27 10 (5.2) 42 (4.3)  
 > 34 6 (3.1) 42 (4.3)  
MCHC (< 316 g/L) 0.759
 316–354 179 (93.2) 919 (93.1)  
 < 316 7 (3.6) 29 (2.9)  
 > 354 6 (3.1) 39 (4.0)  
PDW (%) 0.007
 12–18.1 154 (80.2) 871 (88.2)  
 < 12 34 (17.7) 98 (9.9)  
 > 18.1 4 (2.1) 18 (1.8)  
D-dimer (> 0.5 mg/L) 39 (20.3) 153 (79.7) 0.000
Anion gap (mmol/L) 0.608
 8–16 147 (76.6) 773 (78.3)  
  < 8 43 (22.4) 197 (20.0)  
  > 16 2 (1.0) 17 (1.7)  
OSM < 260 mOsm/L 22 (11.5) 95 (9.6) 0.437
  1. BMI body mass index, ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, TP total protein, ALB albumin, A/G, albumin/globulin, ALT alanine transaminase, AST aspartate transaminase, TBIL total bilirubin, DBIL direct bilirubin, IBIL indirect bilirubin, ALP alkaline phosphatase, LDH lactate dehydrogenase, TC total cholesterol, TG triglycerides, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, VLDC very low-density lipoprotein, GLU urine glucose, UA uric acid, WBC white blood cell, NEU neutrophil count, LYM lymphocyte, MON monocyte count, RBC red blood cell; reference range: female, 3.5–5.0 × 1012/L; males, 4.0–5.5 × 1012/L; HGB hemoglobin; reference range: females, 110–150 g/L; males, 120–160 g/L, HCT hematocrit, MCV mean corpuscular volume, MCH mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCHC mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, PDW platelet distribution width, D-dimer, OSM osmotic pressure