N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuates triglyceride and inflammatory factors level in hfat-1 transgenic pigs
The consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is important to human health, especially in cases of cardiovascular disease. Although beneficial effects of n-3 PUFAs have been observed in a number of studies, the mechanisms involved in these effects have yet to be discovered.
We generated hfat-1 transgenic pigs with traditional somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology. The fatty acid composition in ear tissue of pigs were detected with gas chromatography. The cholesterol, triglycerides (TAG) and inflammation mediators in circulation were investigated.
The hfat-1 transgenic pigs were developed which accumulate high levels of n-3 PUFAs than wild-types pigs. Gas chromatography results demonstrated that the total n-3 PUFAs in the ear tissues of the transgenic founders were 2-fold higher than the wild-type pigs. A lipid analysis demonstrated that the levels of TAG in the transgenic pigs were decreased significantly. The basal levels of the inflammation mediators tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in transgenic pigs were inhibited markedly compared with the wild-type pigs.
These results suggest that n-3 PUFAs accumulation in vivo may have beneficial effects on vascular and hfat-1 transgenic pigs may be a useful tool for investigating the involved mechanisms.
Keywordsn-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids Transgenic pig- fat-1 Inflammation Triglyceride
monocyte chemoattractant protein-1
peripheral blood monouclear cells
polyunsaturated fatty acids
tumor necrosis factor-α
N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important dietary fatty acids, including alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). ALA is enriched in seed oil and can be obtained directly through diets . EPA and DHA can be converted from ALA through desaturation-chain elongation pathway in mammals [2, 3]. Although young women has greater conversion capacity of ALA to DHA than men, the synthesis efficiency is still limited [4, 5, 6, 7, 8]. Thus, the primary source of this fatty acids for humans is dietary supplementation.
However, fat-1 gene in caenorhabditis elegans encodes an n-3 fatty acids desaturase which are able to convert n-6 to n-3 fatty acids by adding a double bond into n-6 fatty acids at the n-3 hydrocarbon position [9, 10]. Researchers developed transgenic mice, pigs and cows carrying the fat-1 gene previously and observed higher n-3 PUFAs accumulation in tissues [11, 12, 13, 14].
A number of observational studies, clinical trials, and in vitro studies have demonstrated that the consumption of n-3 PUFAs is beneficial in the management of cardiovascular disease, including atherosclerosis, severe arrhythmias, and thrombosis, and decrease the incidence of cardiac arrest and sudden death [15, 16, 17, 18, 19]. Moreover, the American Heart Association (AHA) recommends that an intake of approximately 500 mg/day of n-3 PUFAs be used to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) and that patients with CVD should have an intake of 2–4 g/day [20, 21, 22]. In animals, accumulation of n-3 PUFAs in fat-1 transgenic mice decreased cholesterol level and body weight , attenuated vascular inflammation which represented by CD68 and neointimal hyperplasia , protected against global ischemia injury . Moreover, decreased ratio of n-6/n-3 in apoE -/- /fat-1 mice reduced aortic lesion area significantly than that of apoE-/- littermates .
Although rodents have been widely used in medical research as disease models, some of information that come from rodents still can not be replicated and has failed to translate into clinical practice. The pig has a heart size similar to that of humans, has a similar coronary circulation and can develop spontaneous atherosclerotic lesions [27, 28, 29]. Thus, to mimic the role of n-3 PUFAs in humans, we developed hfat-1 transgenic pigs and investigate the changes in cholesterol, TAG, and inflammation caused by the metabolism of n-3 PUFAs.
Generation of transgenic pigs
Genotype and tissue fatty acid analysis of the founders
Genomic DNA from the cloned piglets was extracted from the tails and subjected to PCR analysis to confirm the insertion of the hfat-1 gene using the hfat-1 identi forward and reverse primers. The PCR products were analyzed by electrophoresis and sequencing. The fatty acid composition in the ears which selected according to the previous research of the transgenic founders was analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) (6890 N, Agilent, USA) method as described in other reports [13, 31, 32]. The initial temperature of the program was 160 °C for 2 min, then increased at a rate of 1 °C/min to 210 °C for 50 min. The fatty acid concentration is presented as a percentage of the total fat in the ears. Each value represents the mean ± standard deviation. Each sample measurement was performed three times.
Quantitative real-time PCR
Blood was collected from pigs using anticoagulant EDTA tubes, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from the whole blood with Histopaque-1077(Sigma Inc., USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Briefly, add 5 ml Histopaque-1077 into 50 ml tube, carefully add 5 ml blood onto Histopaque-1077, centrifuge at 400 × g for 30 min, carefully transfer the opaque interface which containing PBMCs into a new tube. Total RNA was isolated from the PBMCs (five transgenic pigs and three wild-type pigs) using the TRIzol-A+ reagent (Tiangen, Beijing, China) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. First-strand cDNAs were synthesized from 1 μg of total RNA using a BioRT cDNA first stand synthesis kit (Bioer, Hangzhou, China), and the samples were analyzed with a Bioeasy SYBR green I real-time PCR kit (Bioer, Hangzhou, China). The detection of inflammation mediators were performed using the following primers: pMCP-1 forward (TCACCAGCAGCAAGTGTCCT) and pMCP-1 reverse (ATGTGCCCAAGTCTCCGTTT); pIL-6 forward (TGGGTTCAATCAGGAGAC) and pIL-6 reverse (CTGACCAGAGGAGGGAAT); pTNF-α forward (CGCATCGCCGTCTCCTACCA) and pTNF-α reverse (TGCCCAGATTCAGCAAAGTCCA). The gene expression was normalized against the internal control (β-actin).
Plasma lipid and lipoprotein analysis
After 16 h of food deprivation, 5 ml of blood was obtained from precaval vein of each pig. Centrifuge at 1000 × g for 10 min to obtain plasma. The TAG, total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C and LDL-C levels in each sample were determined by corresponding kit (ERKN, Zhejiang, China) and analyzed using Beckman coulter UniCel DxC 800 Synchron (Beckman coulter, USA) by No. 208 Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army.
Data in Figs. 3 and 4 are expressed as the mean ± SEM. Comparisons were performed using an unpaired two-tailed Student’s t-test unless otherwise specified. Data were analyzed using GraphPad Prism6. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.
Generation of hfat-1 transgenic pigs
On average, 248 reconstructed embryos from each positive clone were transferred into each naturally cycling gilt, and totally five recipients. At days 25–28, 2 recipients (40 %) became pregnant, as determined by ultrasound scanning. One of these aborted at 29 days, and one pregnancy went to term (20 %). Five piglets were born by natural delivery. The cloning efficiency was 0.4 % (No. of piglets/No. of embryos transferred). The genomic PCR assay was performed using DNA extracted from the tail tissue, and the results show that all five piglets were positive for the hfat-1 transgene (Fig. 2c).
Accumulation of n-3 PUFAs in the transgenic pigs
Statistical analyses were performed using an unpaired two-tailed Student’s t-test
Fatty acid in ears
Transgenic piglets (n = 5)
Wild-type piglets (n = 3)
18:3 n-3 (%)
2.25 ± 0.15
1.12 ± 0.09
20:5 n-3 (%) (EPA)
2.71 ± 0.72
1.09 ± 0.12
22:5 n-3 (%)
1.23 ± 0.21
0.51 ± 0.06
22:6 n-3 (%) (DHA)
1.15 ± 0.17
0.38 ± 0.08
18:2 n-6 (%)
3.28 ± 0.25
5.72 ± 0.64
20:4 n-6 (%)
5.78 ± 0.57
5.65 ± 0.39
22:5 n-6 (%)
1.19 ± 0.22
2.22 ± 0.16
Total n-3 FA (%)a
7.34 ± 0.76
3.10 ± 0.06
Total n-6 FA (%)
10.25 ± 2.28
13.59 ± 0.24
1.81 ± 0.41
4.38 ± 0.64
Lipid analysis of the hfat-1 transgenic pigs
Inflammatory factors analysis of the hfat-1 transgenic pigs
N-3 PUFAs are important for human health. Moreover, meat products usually have less n-3 and more n-6 PUFAs. The imbalance of n-6/n-3 intake contribute to the development of CVD [18, 35]. In this study, we introduced the n-3 fatty acid desaturase encoding gene fat-1 from C .elegans into the pig using SCNT technology, and the gene was successfully expressed in the transgenic pigs. The cholesterol, TAG and inflammatory cytokines of hfat-1 transgenic pigs were determined.
The hfat-1 transgenic pigs in our study were cloned from one G418 resistant clone for more stable gene expression and accumulation of fatty acids. The concentrations of total n-3 PUFAs in the ear tissues of our transgenic founders were two-fold higher than in the wild-type pigs, but the n-6 PUFAs were less altered. Additionally, the EPA and DHA levels showed a 2-fold and 3-fold increase in the transgenic founders, respectively. Consequently, the ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids was decreased two-fold in the transgenic founders compared with wild-type pigs. In a previous study, Saeki et al. got 20 % more linoleic acid (omega-6 PUFA) in adipose tissue in △12 fatty acid desaturase gene transgenic pigs . Lai et al. reported that the levels of n-3 PUFAs in the tail tissues of transgenic pigs were three-fold higher than those in wild-type pigs, and the ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids was reduced five-fold in the transgenic pigs ; Zhou et al. reported that the level of n-3 PUFAs in the muscle tissues of cbr-fat-1 transgenic pigs was six-fold higher than that of the wild-type pigs and the ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids was reduced 10.5 fold in the transgenic founders . However, the accumulation of n-3 PUFAs is not as high and the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs is not altered as much in our results as in previous reports.
In fat-1 transgenic mice, decreased HDL-C, LDL-C, TC and TAG were observed, but the body weight is not uniform [23, 37]. In the hfat-1 transgenic pig, there was no difference observed in body weight compared to wild-type pigs. A high level of TAG is supposed to be an independent risk factor of coronary heart disease (CHD) according to AHA reports [20, 38]. As pigs, the basal TAG levels in Song-liao black is higher compared with other miniature pigs (data not shown). In the hfat-1 transgenic pigs, the accumulation of n-3 PUFAs lowered the TAG levels significantly in circulation in a fasting states compared with the levels in the wild-type pigs. In addition, plasma TC and HDL-C were not changed in the transgenic pigs. Plasma LDL-C was not statistically decreased. Therefore, the lowered TAG levels might exert some protective effects in the hfat-1 transgenic pig.
Chronic inflammation plays an important role in the progression of cardiovascular disease. A number of studies have reported that EPA and DHA or fish oil inhibit endotoxin-induced IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1∙production in vitro and in vivo [39, 40, 41, 42]. In the hfat-1 transgenic pigs, the basal mRNA levels of the inflammation mediators IL-6, TNF-α and MCP-1 were inhibited compared with those of the wild-type pigs. In accordance with the mRNA level, the concentrations of MCP-1, IL-6 and TNF-α were decreased significantly as well. Therefore, the anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 PUFAs may contribute to the lower inflammation levels in mammals.
Although the accumulation of n-3 PUFAs in our transgenic pigs was not as high as previous reports, the TAG and inflammatory factor levels were decreased indeed under similar total n-3 plus n-6 PUFAs levels. The results illustrated that moderate alteration of n-6/n-3 PUFAs ratio is enough to affect metabolism in mammals.
We obtained hfat-1 transgenic pigs that accumulate higher levels of n-3 PUFAs than do wild-type pigs. The n-3 PUFAs in the ear tissues of the transgenic founders were 2-fold higher than those of the wild-type pigs. TAG levels in the hfat-1 transgenic pigs were decreased significantly, whereas TC, HDL-C and LDL-C were not statistically different. However, the levels of the inflammatory mediators IL-6, TNF-α and MCP-1 were decreased significantly as well. Therefore, n-3 PUFAs supplementation in human daily life may have protective effects on vascular.
This work was supported by grants from Cultivation and Breeding of New Transgenic Organisms (No. 2014ZX0800604B), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31472053). We thank Dr. Dai of Nanjing Medical University for assistance with the measurement of fatty acid composition and thank Tingting Yu, Qiangbing Yang, Shengnan Sun and Li Shen for the technical assistance of pig related experiments.
- 1.Cunnane SC, Ganguli S, Menard C, Liede AC, Hamadeh MJ, Chen ZY, Wolever TM, Jenkins DJ. High alpha-linolenic acid flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum): some nutritional properties in humans. Br J Nutr. 1993;69:443–53.Google Scholar
- 11.Zhou Y, Lin Y, Wu X, Feng C, Long C, Xiong F, Wang N, Pan D, Chen H. The high-level accumulation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic pigs harboring the n-3 fatty acid desaturase gene from Caenorhabditis briggsae. Transgenic Res. 2014;23:89–97.Google Scholar
- 13.Wu X, Ouyang H, Duan B, Pang D, Zhang L, Yuan T, Xue L, Ni D, Cheng L, Dong S, et al. Production of cloned transgenic cow expressing omega-3 fatty acids. Transgenic Res. 2012;21:537–43.Google Scholar
- 14.Lai L, Kang JX, Li R, Wang J, Witt WT, Yong HY, Hao Y, Wax DM, Murphy CN, Rieke A, et al. Generation of cloned transgenic pigs rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Nat Biotechnol. 2006;24:435–6.Google Scholar
- 17.Macchia A, Levantesi G, Franzosi MG, Geraci E, Maggioni AP, Marfisi R, Nicolosi GL, Schweiger C, Tavazzi L, Tognoni G, et al. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction, total mortality, and sudden death in patients with myocardial infarction treated with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Eur J Heart Fail. 2005;7:904–9.Google Scholar
- 18.Valagussa F, Marchioli R, Barzi F, Pagliaro L, Campolo L, Cericola A, Mocarelli P, Casari A, Di Minno G, B Donati M, et al. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto miocardico. Lancet. 1999;354:447–455.Google Scholar
- 19.Marchioli R, Barzi F, Bomba E, Chieffo C, Di Gregorio D, Di Mascio R, Franzosi MG, Geraci E, Levantesi G,Maggioni AP et al. Early protection against sudden death by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids after myocardial infarction: time-course analysis of the results of the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto Miocardico (GISSI)-Prevenzione. Circulation. 2002;105:1897–903.Google Scholar
- 20.Miller M, Stone NJ, Ballantyne C, Bittner V, Criqui MH, Ginsberg HN, Goldberg AC, Howard WJ, Jacobson MS, Kris-Etherton PM, et al. Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011;123:2292–333.Google Scholar
- 23.Ma S, Ge Y, Gai X, Xue M, Li N, Kang J, Wan J, Zhang J. Transgenic n-3 PUFAs enrichment leads to weight loss via modulating neuropeptides in hypothalamus. Neurosci Lett. 2016;611:28–32.Google Scholar
- 24.Li X, Ballantyne LL, Che X, Mewburn JD, Kang JX, Barkley RM, Murphy RC, Yu Y, Funk CD. Endogenously generated omega-3 fatty acids attenuate vascular inflammation and neointimal hyperplasia by interaction with free fatty acid receptor 4 in mice. J Am Heart Assoc. 2015;4.Google Scholar
- 25.Luo C, Ren H, Wan JB, Yao X, Zhang X, He C, So KF, Kang JX, Pei Z, Su H. Enriched endogenous omega-3 fatty acids in mice protect against global ischemia injury. J Lipid Res. 2014;55:1288–97.Google Scholar
- 29.Paslawski R, Paslawska U, Szuba A, Nicpon J. Swine as a Model of Experimental Atherosclerosis. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2011;20:211–5.Google Scholar
- 30.Luo W, Li Z, Huang Y, Han Y, Yao C, Duan X, Ouyang H, Li L. Generation of AQP2-Cre transgenic mini-pigs specifically expressing Cre recombinase in kidney collecting duct cells. Transgenic Res. 2014;23:365–75.Google Scholar
- 32.Yu M, Gao Q, Wang Y, Zhang W, Li L, Wang Y, Dai Y. Unbalanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio in red meat products in China. J Biomed Res. 2013;27:366–71.Google Scholar
- 33.Limaye A, Hall B, Kulkarni AB. Manipulation of mouse embryonic stem cells for knockout mouse production. Curr Protoc Cell Biol. 2009;Chapter 19:Unit 19 13 19 13 11-24.Google Scholar
- 34.Yan Y, Jiang W, Spinetti T, Tardivel A, Castillo R, Bourquin C, Guarda G, Tian Z, Tschopp J, Zhou R. Omega-3 fatty acids prevent inflammation and metabolic disorder through inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Immunity. 2013;38:1154–63.Google Scholar
- 36.Saeki K, Matsumoto K, Kinoshita M, Suzuki I, Tasaka Y, Kano K, Taguchi Y, Mikami K, Hirabayashi M, Kashiwazaki N, et al. Functional expression of a Delta12 fatty acid desaturase gene from spinach in transgenic pigs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:6361–6.Google Scholar
- 37.White PJ, Mitchell PL, Schwab M, Trottier J, Kang JX, Barbier O, Marette A. Transgenic omega-3 PUFA enrichment alters morphology and gene expression profile in adipose tissue of obese mice: Potential role for protectins. Metabolism. 2015;64:666–76.Google Scholar
- 38.Patel A, Barzi F, Jamrozik K, Lam TH, Ueshima H, Whitlock G, Woodward M. Serum triglycerides as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in the Asia-Pacific region. Circulation. 2004;110:2678–86.Google Scholar
- 39.Li H, Ruan XZ, Powis SH, Fernando R, Mon WY, Wheeler DC, Moorhead JF, Varghese Z. EPA and DHA reduce LPS-induced inflammation responses in HK-2 cells: evidence for a PPAR-gamma-dependent mechanism. Kidney Int. 2005;67:867–74.Google Scholar
- 40.Weylandt KH, Nadolny A, Kahlke L, Kohnke T, Schmocker C, Wang J, Lauwers GY, Glickman JN, Kang JX. Reduction of inflammation and chronic tissue damage by omega-3 fatty acids in fat-1 transgenic mice with pancreatitis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1782:634–41.Google Scholar
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.