Table 2 Inter- and intra-rater reliability and criterion validity for all items

From: Adapting the SPOTLIGHT Virtual Audit Tool to assess food and activity environments relevant for adolescents: a validity and reliability study

Category Inter-rater reliability Intra-rater reliability
Rater 1
Intra-rater reliability
Rater 2
Criterion validity
Rater 1
Criterion validity
Rater 2
% Agreement Kappa % Agreement Kappa % Agreement Kappa % Agreement Kappa % Agreement Kappa
Walking related itemsa 90 0.69 96 0.80 89 0.63 92 0.72 88 0.63
Type of street (4 categories) 84 0.69 90 0.83 89 0.77 82 0.67 86 0.70
Presence of sidewalks (yes/no) 93 0.84 99 0.97 92 0.81 97 0.92 93 0.83
Sidewalk on both sides (yes/no) 85 0.70 96 0.92 83 0.65 95 0.89 87 0.74
Pedestrian crossing available (yes/no) 86 0.72 93 0.86 87 0.73 91 0.82 87 0.72
Zebra-path (yes/no) 93 0.85 97 0.93 90 0.76 90 0.79 78 0.49
Traffic lights (yes/no) 95 0.88 97 0.93 94 0.87 95 0.89 92 0.83
Over/under pass (yes/no) 95 0.77 98 0.90 92 0.56 95 0.77 96 0.81
Presence of streetlights (yes/no) 95 0 99 0 95 − 0.01 99 0 93 − 0.03
Cars form obstacles on the road (yes/no) 87 0.74 95 0.89 77 0.54 85 0.70 81 0.60
Cycling related itemsa 95 0.48 99 0.96 95 0.47 94 0.77 92 0.50
Presence of bicycle lane (yes/no) 98 − 0.01 100 1 98 − 0.01 100 1 96 0.27
Speed limit 93 0.90 100 1 97 0.96 81 0.70 85 0.85
Type of bicycle lane (yes/no) 100 N/A 100 N/A 100 N/A 100 N/A 100 N/A
Traffic calming devices (yes/no) 78 0.55 94 0.88 75 0.47 80 0.61 68 0.38
Condition of bicycle lane (3. cat.) 100 N/A 100 N/A 100 N/A 100 N/A 100 N/A
Obstacles present bicycle lane (yes/no) 100 N/A 100 N/A 100 N/A 100 N/A 100 N/A
Public transporta 97 0.80 99 0.91 94 0.59 96 0.82 94 0.72
Bus/tram stop (yes/no) 94 0.81 98 0.93 90 0.68 93 0.75 91 0.74
Railway/underground station (yes/no) 99 0.79 99 0.89 97 0.49 99 0.89 97 0.70
Aestheticsa 81 0.24 91 0.62 87 0.40 84 0.30 82 0.26
Green/water area available (yes/no) 81 0.38 95 0.67 79 0.38 84 0.31 81 0.44
Park (yes/no) 99 − 0.01 98 0.39 96 0.55 98 0.39 95 0.40
Condition of park (3. cat.) 100 N/A 100 N/A 100 1 100 N/A 100 0
Residential gardens visible (yes/no) 90 0.74 95 0.86 84 0.58 92 0.78 87 0.62
Rating of residential gardens (well maintained/not well maintained) 90 − 0.03 99 0.80 98 − 0.01 95 − 0.02 93 − 0.02
Rating of most residential buildings (good/poor) 99 0 100 1 100 N/A 98 N/A 100 N/A
Open vacant area/parking lot available (yes/no) 73 0.46 88 0.74 77 0.52 83 0.64 75 0.49
Maintenance of green areas (well maintained/not well maintained) 45 0.06 82 0.58 80 0.26 47 − 0.15 40 0.06
Condition of sidewalks (3. cat.) 55 0.12 80 0.34 67 0.19 68 0.15 48 0.01
Presence of graffiti (yes/no) 54 0.15 78 0.55 79 0.13 64 0.29 76 0.28
Presence of litter (yes/no) 86 0.07 83 0.41 95 − 0.02 78 0.11 97 − 0.02
Presence of trees (yes/no) 88 0.21 97 0.43 85 0.23 95 0.31 89 0.23
Presence of forest (yes/no) 91 0.69 91 0.71 88 0.52 87 0.52 90 0.60
Land use-mixa 92 0.55 95 0.70 92 0.54 94 0.65 92 0.57
Presence of residential buildings (yes/no) 93 0.79 99 0.96 87 0.66 93 0.80 90 0.70
Detached/semidetached homes (yes/no) 90 0.80 97 0.95 92 0.83 95 0.89 89 0.77
Terraced homes (yes/no) 85 0.44 83 0.56 90 0.50 84 0.54 86 0.37
Apartment buildings ≤ 5 stories (yes/no) 81 0.61 92 0.84 78 0.55 89 0.77 80 0.60
Apartment buildings > stories (yes/no) 96 0.76 97 0.86 92 0.56 97 0.78 96 0.80
Apartment above shops (yes/no) 97 0.65 99 0.80 96 0.49 97 0.65 95 0.52
% of commercial buildings (5 categories) 83 0.29 95 0.39 83 0.46 93 0.38 83 0.47
% of industrial buildings (5 categories) 92 0.18 93 0.31 100 0.80 94 0.29 99 0.80
School (yes/no) 95 0.61 95 0.47 95 0.53 96 0.55 95 0.69
Youth clubs (yes/no) 100 N/A 100 N/A 100 N/A 100 N/A 100 N/A
Shopping mall (yes/no) 96 0.32 99 0.85 97 0 99 0.85 97 0
Grocery storesa 99 0.55 99 0.65 99 0.44 99 0.56 98 0.35
Supermarket (number) 99 0.96 95 0.74 98 0.77 93 0.56 92 0.43
Local food shop (number) 99 0 99 0 100 N/A 99 0.66 99 0
Bakery (number) 100 1 99 0 100 1 99 − 0.01 99 0.66
Street food market (number) 100 N/A 100 N/A 100 N/A 100 N/A 100 N/A
Small grocery store (number) 99 0 98 − 0.01 99 0 97 − 0.01 99 0
Convenience store (number) 99 0.80 99 0.66 97 − 0.01 100 1 99 0.66
Food outletsa 100 0.62 100 0.92 100 0.51 100 0.74 99 0.56
Restaurants (number) 99 0.57 100 1 99 0.80 99 0.80 99 0.80
Fast food outlets (number) 99 0 100 N/A 99 0 100 N/A 99 0
Take away restaurants (number) 100 0.89 100 1 100 0.75 99 0.66 97 0.59
On street vendors (number) 100 N/A 100 N/A 100 N/A 100 N/A 100 N/A
Café (number) 99 0.66 99 0.66 99 − 0.01 99 0.49 98 0.39
Bar/Pub (number) 100 1 100 1 100 1 100 1 100 1
Recreational facilitiesa 81 0.26 94 0.71 94 0.48 87 0.60 98 0.59
Playground (number) 90 0.50 91 0.66 96 0.65 92 0.65 95 0.64
Condition playground (3. cat.) 43 0 91 0.61 83 0 43 − 0.17 100 N/A
Soccer field (number) 97 0.69 98 0.71 99 0.85 95 0.59 96 0.55
Condition soccer field (3. cat.) 43 0 91 0.61 83 0 88 0.60 100 1
Other outdoor sports facilities (number) 98 0.39 99 0.89 100 0.89 95 0.66 97 0.16
Condition other sports facilities (3. cat.) 100 N/A 88 0.67 100 N/A 100 1 100 N/A
Indoor facilities (number) 98 0 99 0.85 100 N/A 99 0.85 100 N/A
  1. N/A not applicable
  2. aMean category agreement