Table 2 The six facilitation principles used in discover learning intervention

From: Adolescent, caregiver and community experiences with a gender transformative, social emotional learning intervention

Principles Ways of demonstrating principle during instruction
Scaffolding vs. Teaching
In scaffolding a learning experience, facilitators create space for learners to safely struggle, fail, and learn from experience. This does not mean being absent or only observing the learning process, but rather providing targeting feedback at specific times. This requires providing only essential support and resources.
Provide essential information
Balance between success and failure
Build questions/encourage using resources
Be comfortable with struggle
Observe
Create an environment that creates positive learning experiences
Provide options
Start small when providing information
Everything is a learning opportunity
Easy tasks first, then get harder
Students generate ideas and give each other feedback
Creating a safe space to try things out
Model rewarding/trying
Practice ideas
Learning over education
The importance of the active process of learning –gaining knowledge or skill through experience – over the passive process of education – being taught a knowledge or skills.
Learning can mean;
Working towards understanding
There is no right or wrong
More freedom for the learner to explore and make mistakes
Do it yourself.
Leveraging peer understanding
See one do one
Provide immediate feedback.
Make learning relevant to learners
Experiential/hands on learning
Opportunity to create
Student-driven
Adaptative learning
Non-judgment
Learning is often a non-linear process and the learner’s path may not always be clear to the facilitator. The role of the facilitator is to withhold judgment or offering an opinion about the path. Great learning can result from mistakes and failures.
Accepting other people’s realities to be true
Being aware of unintended consequences
Do not generalize
Discourage stereotypes
Positive reinforcement
Acknowledge all input
Teamwork and positive group dynamic
Every member of a team brings unique skills and perspectives. It is important to create a climate where diverse skills are valued, recognized, and leveraged to help the group succeed. This includes members of the team learning to step up when their skills are most needed and relevant and step back when they are less so.
Use activities to get to know one another
Foster cooperation/collaboration among group activities
Create common goal/tasks
Use unifying factors - Group name, slogan, symbol, identity
Common emotional experience
Diversity of tasks from different people can stand out
Strategies for conflict resolution
Mix up groups - bigger, smaller, and different
Mediation
Offering options
Providing more structure
Disrupting gender norms
There are many cultural norms that affect learning. For the Discover Project a goal is to attend to these gender norms which may appear (e.g., girls stating that they are not good at a task; boys taking credit for leadership roles even when they are not the leaders; boys taking credit for girls’ actions or ideas).
Feeling of safety and security, where, when and with whom
Anyone can do anything
Addressing family responsibilities
Consider broader societal context
Create equal opportunities for leadership
Be mindful of chosen and assigned roles
Growth mindset over Fixed mindset
The project aims to highlight the value of taking risks and the importance of failure in learning. We will use the FAIL framework (Frequent Attempts in Learning). The more the group takes changes and fails, the more they learn. In addition, the project adheres to the approach that every individual has the potential to grow and change – no one has a finite intrinsic capacity or ability in any realm.
Having a growth mindset entails;
Work hard when things get tough
Being inspired by the accomplishments of others
“I can be anything”
Your brain is always developing
You are always improving
When you fail, try harder
Effort is an important part of learning
Try out lots of things
Feedback is an opportunity to learn