Table 6 Logistic regression of unmet healthcare needs among people living in rural areas

From: Does universal health insurance coverage reduce unmet healthcare needs in China? Evidence from the National Health Service Survey

  Non-use of outpatient services Non-use of inpatient services Non-use of physical examination Early discharge from hospital
OR SD OR SD OR SD OR SD
Predisposing factors
 Sex, ref.: male 1.447 0.293 1.191 0.610 0.822** 0.119 1.384 0.475
 Age (years), ref.: ≤30
  30–45 1.822* 0.410 1.906 1.238 0.815 0.260 1.191 0.549
  45–69 2.022*** 0.605 1.508* 0.709 0.944* 0.128 1.527** 0.318
   > 60 2.833** 0.874 2.193** 0.944 0.410** 0.091 2.299** 0.904
 Marital status, ref.: not married 1.407 0.830 1.310 0.855 1.380 0.473 1.138 0.710
 Education level, ref.: less than lower secondary
  Upper secondary & vocational training 1.190 0.268 1.105 0.488 0.699*** 0.102 1.135 0.487
  Tertiary 1.038 0.409 0.653** 0.179 0.544*** 0.099 0.909* 0.232
 Employment status, ref.: employment
  Unemployment 0.984 0.191 1.470* 0.333 1.903* 0.336 1.705 0.933
  Retired 1.122 0.287 1.277* 0.184 1.190** 0.181 1.134 0.574
 Family size, ref.: ≤2 0.810* 0.180 0.739*** 0.210 1.163 0.719 1.209 0.484
Enabling factors
 Social health insurance, ref.: have no social medical health insurance 0.770** 0.218 0.291*** 0.098 1.372 0.388 0.628** 0.134
 Income level, ref.: ≤¥13,334
  ¥13,334–24,915 1.237 0.575 0.803* 0.193 0.788 0.238 0.871** 0.214
  ¥24,915–39,967 0.717* 0.129 1.024 0.436 0.610** 0.131 0.910* 0.165
   > ¥39,967 0.579** 0.100 0.337** 0.079 0.427** 0.091 0.762** 0.104
 Financial subsidies: ref.: have financial subsidies 0.474 0.187 0.657** 0.184 0.983 0.318 0.904 0.354
Need factors
 Self-reported health status (value on VAS), ref.: excellent
  Good 1.008 0.198 1.390 0.550 0.974 0.449 0.790* 0.111
  Fair 1.478* 0.311 1.905** 0.338 1.135 0.681 1.353 0.381
  Poor 1.809* 0.284 2.497*** 0.682 1.036 0.382 0.899 0.401
 Depression, ref.: not depressed 1.198 0.410 1.409 0.549 1.210** 0.229 1.137* 0.204
 Smoking, ref.: smoked 1.471 0.625 1.191 0.781 0.997*** 0.148 1.241 0.458
 Drinking, ref.: drank 1.191 0.406 0.903 0.359 0.974 0.402 0.977 0.319
 Chronic disease, ref.:0
  One chronic disease 2.871** 0.792 3.040* 0.939 0.609** 0.103 1.228 0.514
  Multiple chronic disease 4.190*** 0.690 6.093*** 1.109 0.426*** 0.074 1.033* 0.201
 Year, ref.: 2008
  2013 0.917** 0.209 1.099 0.824 0.737 0.198 1.036 0.578
  2018 0.362** 0.087 0.634** 0.162 0.608*** 0.130 0.638** 0.201
 Year2013*Social health insurance 0.847* 0.219 0.904** 0.289 0.610 0.248 0.931 0.220
 Year2018*Social health insurance 0.493** 0.170 0.312** 0.108 0.484 0.150 0.271** 0.083
  1. Note: *** indicates p value < 0.001, ** indicates p value < 0.01, * indicates p value < 0.05, SD standard deviation, OR odd ratio