Table 5 Logistic regression of unmet healthcare needs among people living in urban areas

From: Does universal health insurance coverage reduce unmet healthcare needs in China? Evidence from the National Health Service Survey

  Non-use of outpatient services Non-use of inpatient services Non-use of physical examination Early discharge from hospital
OR SD OR SD OR SD OR SD
Predisposing factors
 Sex, ref.: male 1.148 0.427 0.829 0.391 0.892 0.532 0.804 0.290
 Age (years), ref.: ≤30
  30–45 1.709 0.743 1.096 0.413 0.934 0.561 2.484 1.509
  45–60 1.937** 0.418 1.579 0.735 0.839** 0.211 2.299 1.280
   > 60 1.897*** 0.502 1.227** 0.186 0.320*** 0.094 1.927 1.142
 Marital status, ref.: not married 0.749* 0.158 1.177* 0.230 0.801** 0.227 0.876 0.298
 Education level, ref.: less than lower secondary
  Upper secondary & vocational training 0.902 0.416 0.901** 0.187 0.810*** 0.235 0.892* 0.208
  Tertiary 0.528** 0.201 0.473*** 0.104 0.407*** 0.103 0.533* 0.118
 Employment status, ref.: employment   
  Unemployment 1.311** 0.198 1.307*** 0.311 1.630* 0.413 1.191 0.413
  Retired 1.505 0.479 1.028 0.279 1.419*** 0.211 1.485 0.290
 Family size, ref.:≤2 0.884 0.517 0.955 0.618 0.997 0.359 0.908 0.305
Enabling factors
 Social health insurance, ref.: have no social medical health insurance 0.637** 0.210 0.610** 0.204 0.953* 0.249 0.793** 0.238
 Income level, ref.: ≤¥13,334
  ¥13,334–24,915 0.811 0.167 0.807 0.492 0.992 0.475 1.138 0.523
  ¥24,915–39,967 0.774 0.225 0.906 0.298 0.758 0.343 0.872 0.503
   > ¥39,967 0.804** 0.174 0.588** 0.104 0.479*** 0.213 0.849* 0.176
 Financial subsidies: ref.: have financial subsidies 1.100 0.590 0.905* 0.228 1.381 0.509 0.871* 0.203
Need factors
 Self-reported health status (value on VAS), ref.: excellent
  Good 1.588 0.530 1.843 0.998 1.227 0.589 1.408 0.690
  Fair 0.990 0.491 1.266 0.680 1.183 0.391 1.249 0.754
  Poor 1.098*** 0.199 1.320* 0.388 1.909 0.998 1.907 0.904
 Depression, ref.: not depressed 1.554** 0.379 1.579** 0.193 1.202* 0.236 1.190* 0.183
 Smoking, ref.: smoked 1.073 0.405 1.379 0.590 0.838 0.455 1.093 0.158
 Drinking, ref.: drank 0.805** 0.217 0.821* 0.303 1.384 0.849 0.953 0.418
 Chronic disease, ref.: 0
  One chronic disease 1.326*** 0.126 2.075** 0.310 0.522*** 0.109 0.973 0.381
  Multiple chronic disease 1.182** 0.321 1.912*** 0.274 0.256*** 0.071 1.278 0.671
 Year, ref.:2008
  2013 0.891 0.391 0.933 0.438 0.917** 0.208 0.923 0.293
  2018 0.502* 0.179 0.827 0.311 0.718** 0.124 0.809** 0.243
 Year2013*Social health insurance 0.722 0.439 1.079 0.591 1.145 0.516 0.917 0.448
 Year2018*Social health insurance 0.689** 0.173 0.805 0.388 0.947* 0.207 0.675 0.289
  1. Note: *** indicates p value < 0.001, ** indicates p value < 0.01, * indicates p value < 0.05, SD standard deviation, OR odd ratio