Table 4 Logistic regression of unmet healthcare needs among the whole population

From: Does universal health insurance coverage reduce unmet healthcare needs in China? Evidence from the National Health Service Survey

  Non-use of outpatient services Non-use of inpatient services Non-use of physical examination Early discharge from hospital
OR SD OR SD OR SD OR SD
Predisposing factors
 Sex, ref.: male 1.283 0.193 1.210 0.498 1.125 0.181 1.156 0.191
 Age (years), ref.:≤30
  30–45 1.705*** 0.258 1.006 0.745 0.909* 0.051 1.110 0.491
  45–60 2.451*** 0.153 1.465*** 0.309 0.617* 0.139 1.906 0.874
   > 60 2.045*** 0.359 1.672** 0.295 0.337*** 0.024 2.187* 1.188
 Marital status, ref.: not married 1.293 0.288 1.408 0.507 1.920 0.086 1.047 0.339
 Education level, ref.: less than lower secondary
  Upper secondary & vocational training 1.287 0.404 0.788 0.453 0.763*** 0.048 0.907* 0.276
  Tertiary 0.693* 0.218 0.457*** 0.121 0.392** 0.111 0.521** 0.104
 Employment status, ref.: employment
  Unemployment 1.406 0.339 1.266 0.581 1.507* 0.431 1.751 1.157
  Retired 1.375 0.239 1.373** 0.208 1.298 0.209 1.443 0.998
 Family size, ref.: ≤2 0.954* 0.168 0.905** 0.176 1.030 0.200 0.774 0.259
Enabling factors
 Social health insurance, ref.: have no insurance 0.492*** 0.094 0.586** 0.097 1.251 0.417 0.943* 0.327
 Income level, ref.: ≤¥13,334
  ¥13,334–24,915 1.210 0.309 0.804 0.313 0.902*** 0.011 1.094 0.469
  ¥24,915–39,967 0.902** 0.183 0.512*** 0.092 0.496*** 0.020 1.336 0.764
   > ¥39,967 0.783* 0.093 0.483** 0.102 0.410*** 0.030 0.689** 0.244
 Financial subsidies: ref.: have financial subsidies 0.695 0.288 0.581* 0.131 0.958 0.141 0.904* 0.180
 Area of residence, ref.: urban 1.417*** 0.093 1.408** 0.111 1.573* 0.057 2.804** 0.571
Need factors
 Self-reported health status (value on VAS), ref.: excellent
  Good 1.223 0.223 1.435** 0.217 1.032 0.061 1.508 0.991
  Fair 0.931 0.147 1.207 0.413 1.370 0.099 1.349 0.409
  Poor 1.309** 0.109 2.509** 0.509 1.234 0.155 2.097 1.518
 Depression, ref.: not depressed 1.437** 0.200 1.234 0.495 1.003** 0.063 1.093* 0.209
 Smoking, ref.: smoked 1.237 0.313 1.496 0.190 0.926 0.095 0.682 0.209
 Drinking, ref.: drank 0.601* 0.134 0.957 0.310 1.008 0.058 1.588 0.970
 Chronic disease, ref.: 0
 One chronic disease 1.985*** 0.433 1.973** 0.259 0.744*** 0.038 1.210 0.506
 Multiple chronic diseases 3.063*** 0.908 2.522* 0.648 0.253** 0.021 1.606 0.974
 Year, ref.: 2008
  2013 0.861*** 1.032 0.909 0.280 0.773** 0.148 1.107 0.579
  2018 0.603*** 0.243 0.547** 0.109 0.581* 0.230 0.487* 0.105
 Year2013* Social health insurance 0.609** 0.083 1.064 0.896 0.896 0.287 0.541* 0.078
 Year2018* Social health insurance 0.235** 0.131 0.432** 0.090 0.609 0.172 0.309** 0.091
  1. Note: *** indicates p value < 0.001, ** indicates p value < 0.01, * indicates p value < 0.05, SD standard deviation, OR odd ratio