Table 2 Sample characteristics divided by living areas (urban & rural)

From: Does universal health insurance coverage reduce unmet healthcare needs in China? Evidence from the National Health Service Survey

  Total Urban Rural p
n = 25,048 n = 10,973 (43.81%) n = 14,075 (56.19%) value
Year     0.000
 2008 23.95% 12.73% 32.69%  
 2013 36.82% 42.61% 32.31%  
 2018 39.23% 44.66% 35.00%  
Predisposing factors
 Sex     0.055
  Male 48.85% 48.16% 49.39%  
  Female 51.15% 51.84% 50.61%  
 Age (years)     0.000
   ≤ 30 17.45% 16.99% 17.80%  
  30–45 21.10% 20.39% 21.66%  
  45–60 30.32% 26.34% 33.42%  
   > 60 31.13% 36.28% 27.11%  
 Family size     0.000
   ≤ 2 25.71% 30.75% 21.79%  
   > 2 74.29% 69.25% 78.21%  
 Marital status     0.006
  Married 80.70% 79.92% 81.31%  
  Not married 19.30% 20.08% 18.69%  
 Education level     0.000
  Less than lower secondary 68.63% 53.71% 80.26%  
  Upper secondary & vocational training 18.36% 23.48% 14.37%  
  Tertiary 13.01% 22.81% 5.37%  
 Employment status     0.000
  Employed 64.94% 48.55% 77.71%  
  Not employed 19.53% 19.02% 19.94%  
  Retired 15.53% 32.43% 2.35%  
Enabling factors
 Income level     0.000
   ≤ ¥13,334 25.44% 8.38% 38.74%  
  ¥13,334–24,915 24.60% 19.45% 28.61%  
  ¥24,915–39,967 25.10% 32.39% 19.42%  
   > ¥39,967 24.86% 39.78% 13.23%  
 Financial subsidies     0.000
  Yes 3.78% 2.83% 4.53%  
  No 96.22% 97.17% 95.47%  
 Social health insurance     0.000
  Yes 96.47% 96.14% 96.74%  
  No 3.53% 3.86% 3.26%  
Need factors
 Depression     0.000
  Not depressed 94.83% 96.26% 93.71%  
  Depressed 5.17% 3.74% 6.29%  
 Self-reported health status (value on VAS)     0.000
  Excellent (80–100) 75.95% 75.19% 76.53%  
  Good (70–80) 12.84% 14.01% 11.93%  
  Fair (50–70) 9.78% 9.63% 9.90%  
  Poor (< 50) 1.43% 1.17% 1.64%  
 Smoking     0.056
  Yes 26.05% 25.45% 26.52%  
  No 73.95% 74.55% 73.48%  
 Drinking     0.024
  Yes 22.67% 21.99% 23.20%  
  No 77.33% 78.01% 76.80%  
 Chronic diseases     0.000
  0 69.06% 63.56% 73.34%  
  One 23.55% 26.60% 21.17%  
  Multiple 7.39% 9.84% 5.49%