Table 1 Characteristics for postmenopausal women according to BMI

From: Association between body mass index and fragility fracture in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2009 (KNHANES IV)

  Underweight Normal Obesity p value
(BMI < 18.5) (BMI ≥ 18.5 and < 25) (BMI ≥ 25) 2)
N = 45 N = 1234 N = 835
Est. number (n) (%) 105,855 (2.1%) 3,030,556 (60.6%) 1,867,253 (37.3%)  
Age (years) 61.43 ± 3.00 59.01 ± 0.42 60.98 ± 0.44b  
Height (cm) 153.36 ± 1.61 154.28 ± 0.22 153.77 ± 0.28  
Weight (kg) 41.43 ± 1.05c 53.62 ± 0.21 64.65 ± 0.28c  
BMI (kg/m2) 17.55 ± 0.20c 22.49 ± 0.06 27.31 ± 0.09c  
Waist circumference (cm) 65.30 ± 0.86c 76.96 ± 0.29 89.47 ± 0.37c  
Menopausal age (years) 45.61 ± 1.66 48.59 ± 0.22 48.48 ± 0.26  
Weight-adjusted ASM 49.43 ± 3.35c 34.29 ± 0.37 28.52 ± 0.33c  
BMD (g/cm2)     
 Lumbar spine total 0.92 ± 0.03 0.90 ± 0.01 0.91 ± 0.01  
 Femur neck 0.79 ± 0.03a 0.73 ± 0.01 0.72 ± 0.01  
 Femur total 0.94 ± 0.03a 0.88 ± 0.01 0.88 ± 0.01  
BMD (T-score)     
 Lumbar spine total − 0.80 ± 0.22 − 0.91 ± 0.06 − 0.88 ± 0.06  
 Femur neck − 0.35 ± 0.24a − 0.87 ± 0.06 − 0.89 ± 0.06  
 Femur total 0.31 ± 0.18 − 0.03 ± 0.05 − 0.07 ± 0.06  
Fragility fracture (%) 5.9 (± 2.9) 1.1 (± 0.3) 3.0 (± 0.7) 0.001 (11.186)
Treatment of OP (%)     0.369
 None 91.8 (± 3.6) 91.4 (± 1.0) 93.2 (± 1.1) (1.938)
 Current treatment 8.2 (± 3.6) 8.6 (± 1.0) 6.8 (± 1.1)  
FHx of osteoporosis (%)     0.540
 No 78.3 (± 8.0) 85.1 (± 1.3) 86.0 (± 1.6) (1.859)
 Yes 21.7 (± 8.0) 14.9 (± 1.3) 14.0 (± 1.6)  
Rheumatoid arthritis (%)     0.156
 No 94.0 (± 3.7) 96.3 (± 0.6) 94.3 (± 0.9) (3.835)
 Yes 6.0 (± 3.7) 3.7 (± 0.6) 5.7 (± 0.9)  
Smoking status (%)     0.043
 Non-smoker 76.7 (± 7.8) 90.4 (± 1.0) 91.8 (± 1.1) (11.863)
 Former smoker 9.6 (± 5.0) 5.2 (± 0.7) 3.8 (± 0.7)  
 Current smoker 13.7 (± 6.6) 4.4 (± 0.7) 4.4 (± 0.9)  
Alcohol consumption (%)     0.242
 Non-drinker 65.4 (± 9.3) 52.4 (± 1.6) 49.1 (± 2.2) (8.583)
 Moderate drinker 23.9 (± 7.5) 40.4 (± 1.6) 44.6 (± 2.3)  
 Heavy drinker 10.8 (± 7.6) 7.2 (± 0.9) 6.3 (± 1.1)  
Moderate exercise (%)     0.264
 Yes 6.9 (± 4.1) 12.8 (± 1.3) 15.4 (± 1.9) (3.855)
 No 93.1 (± 4.1) 87.2 (± 1.3) 84.6 (± 1.9)  
  1. All values are weighted value and presented mean (± standard deviation) or percent (± standard deviation)
  2. a, b and c are presented p value < 0.05, < 0.01 and < 0.001, respectively
  3. BMI body mass index, ASM appendicular skeletal muscle mass, BMD bone mineral density, OP osteoporosis, FHx familial history