Table 2 Clinical Outcomes

From: Effect of balanced crystalloids versus saline on urinary biomarkers of acute kidney injury in critically ill adults

Outcomea n Balanced (n = 131) Saline (n = 130) P Value
Primary Outcomes
 Day 2 urinary NGAL level – ng/mg (IQR) 261 39.4 [9.9–133.2] 64.4 [27.6–339.9] < 0.001
 Day 2 urinary KIM-1 level – ng/mg (IQR) 261 2.7 [1.5–4.9] 2.4 [1.3–5.0] 0.36
Secondary Biomarker Outcomes
 Change in NGAL level from day 0 to 2 111 −27.7 [− 293.4–2.3] −7.8 [− 115.9–25.7] 0.14
 Change in KIM-1 level from day 0 to 2 111 −0.59 [− 2.9–1.21] −0.29 [− 1.48–0.48] 0.79
Secondary Clinical Outcomes
 30-day in-hospital mortality – no. (%) 261 5 (4%) 10 (8%)
 Major Adverse Kidney Event within 30 days – no. (%)b 261 13 (10%) 17 (13%)
 Intensive care unit-free daysc 260 25.0 [23.0–26.0] 25.0 [23.0–25.0]
  Mean ± SD   22.5 ± 6.5 21.8 ± 7.2  
 Ventilator-free daysc 260 28.0 [28.0–28.0] 28.0 [27.0–28.0]
  Mean ± SD   25.8 ± 6.3 25.1 ± 7.6  
 Vasopressor-free daysc 260 28.0 [27.0–28.0] 28.0 [28.0–28.0]
  Mean ± SD   26.0 ± 6.2 25.6 ± 7.1  
 Renal replacement therapy-free daysc 260 28.0 [28.0–28.0] 28.0 [28.0–28.0]
  Mean ± SD   26.6 ± 5.8 25.3 ± 7.9  
 Stage II or greater AKI developing after enrollment – no. (%)d 261 50 (39%) 48 (37%)
 New receipt of RRT 261 1 (1%) 3 (2%)
 Creatinine, mg/dL
  Highest before discharge or day 30 260 1.32 [0.95–1.96] 1.17 [0.81–1.85]
  Final value before discharge or 30 days 259 0.84 [0.72–1.15] 0.79 [0.68–1.07]
  1. aContinuous data are presented as median [25th percentile – 75th percentile] unless otherwise noted. Categorical data are presented as number (no.) and percentage (%)
  2. bMajor Adverse Kidney Events within 30 days (MAKE30) is the composite of death, receipt of new renal replacement therapy, or final creatinine ≥200% baseline, all censored at the first of hospital discharge or 30 days after intensive care unit admission
  3. cIntensive care unit-, ventilator-, vasopressor-, and renal replacement therapy-free days refer to the number of days alive and free from the specified therapy in the first 28 days after enrollment
  4. dStage II or greater acute kidney injury (AKI) developing after enrollment is defined using the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) creatinine criteria [19] as (1) any creatinine value between enrollment and discharge or 30 days that is (a) increased at least 0.3 mg/dL from a preceding post-enrollment value and (b) at least 200% of the baseline value, at least 200% of a preceding post-enrollment value, or at least 4.0 mg/dL; (2) urine output < 0.5 ml/k/h for at least 12 consecutive hours; or (3) new receipt of renal replacement therapy