Table 1 Patient Characteristics at Baseline

From: Effect of balanced crystalloids versus saline on urinary biomarkers of acute kidney injury in critically ill adults

Patient Characteristicsa Balanced Saline
(n = 131) (n = 130)
Age – years 55 [43–67] 59 [47–71]
Men – no. (%) 61 (47%) 67 (52%)
Caucasian – no. (%) 112 (85%) 106 (82%)
Weight – kg 82 [68–98] 78 [68–95]
Medical comorbidities – no. (%)
 Hypertension 79 (60%) 69 (53%)
 Diabetes 52 (40%) 49 (38%)
 Chronic respiratory failure 40 (31%) 39 (30%)
 Immunosuppression 30 (23%) 35 (27%)
 Coronary artery disease 31 (24%) 24 (18%)
Renal comorbidities – no. (%)   
 Chronic kidney disease, stage III or greaterb 18 (14%) 14 (11%)
Location immediately prior to the intensive care unit – no. (%)
 Emergency department 108 (82%) 105 (81%)
 Operating room 2 (2%) 2 (2%)
 Hospital ward 21 (16%) 23 (18%)
Admitting diagnosis – no. (%)
 Sepsis or septic shock 36 (27%) 33 (25%)
 Respiratory failure 28 (21%) 34 (26%)
 Gastrointestinal bleed 16 (12%) 19 (15%)
Mechanical ventilation – no. (%) 17 (13%) 19 (15%)
Vasopressors – no. (%) 10 (8%) 12 (9%)
APACHE II score 11 [7.5–15] 13 [9–16.2]
Baseline creatininec – mg/dL 0.77 [0.67–0.90] 0.78 [0.65–0.90]
Day 0 NGAL levele 70 [33–442] 81 [28–461]
Day 0 KIM-1 levele 3.5 [2.1–6.9] 3.1 [1.4–5.5]
Acute kidney injury, stage II or greaterd 35 (26%) 34 (27%)
  1. aContinuous data are presented as median [25th percentile – 75th percentile] unless otherwise noted. Categorical data are presented as number (no.) and percentage (%). There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the two study groups (P values range from 0.05 to 0.78)
  2. bChronic kidney disease stage III or greater is defined as a glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 as calculated by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology (CKD-EPI) Collaboration equation [22] using the patient’s baseline creatinine value
  3. cBaseline creatinine for the study is defined as the lowest plasma creatinine measured in the 12 months prior to hospitalization if available, otherwise the lowest plasma creatinine measured between hospitalization and intensive care unit admission; using an estimated creatinine only for patients without an available plasma creatinine between 12 months prior to hospitalization and the time of ED presentation. A total of 37 patients (28%) in the balanced crystalloid group and 45 patients (35%) in the saline group did not have a measured plasma creatinine value available between 12 months prior to hospital admission and the time of intensive care unit admission
  4. dAcute kidney injury, stage II or greater is defined according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) creatinine criteria [19] as a first plasma creatinine value at time of ED presentation at least 200% of the baseline value OR both (1) greater than 4.0 mg/dL and (2) increased at least 0.3 mg/dL from the baseline value
  5. eDay 0 urine samples were available for 60 patients (46%) in the balanced group and 51 patients (39%) in the saline group