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Table 1 Characterization of included studies

From: Antimicrobial resistance among GLASS pathogens in Morocco: an epidemiological scoping review

Study Study design Time enrolled Moroccan location Isolate source and sample Susceptibility method used GLASS Organism(s) included
[110] Prospective 2008–2009 Primary health care in Marrakech 660 nasopharyngeal samples (children under 2 years) E-test S. pneumoniae
[62] Prospective 2008 Ibn Sina UH, Rabat Nasal carriage of 54 hemodialyzed patients DDM S. aureus
[111] Retrospective Mar 2006–Jun 2010 Military Hospital Mohammed V, Rabat 307 samples corresponding to isolate bacterial strains from burn patients DDM K. pneumoniae, E coli
[112] Survey 1998–2008 Ibn Rochd UH of Casablanca 955 consecutive non-duplicate isolates recovered at the microbiology laboratory DDM S. pneumoniae
[113] Prospective Jan 2010–Jan 2010 Private laboratory and Mohammed V Hospital Meknes Urine samples from 480 inpatients and outpatients DDM E. coli, Klebsiella.sp
[114] Surveillance Sep 2007–Aug 2008 Ibn Rochd UH of Casablanca 185 children aged ≤ 5 years diagnosed with bacterial invasive infection ADM and DDM S. Pneumoniae
[115] Prospective July 2009–Dec 2010 UH Mohamed VI of Marrakesh 376 urine cytobacteriology (hospitalized infants) DDM E. coli, K. pneumoniae
[63] Prospective Jan–Jul 2007 Ibn Rochd UH of Casablanca 160 isolates from pathological samples of patients (79 cases) and nasal swabs (81) of cases and controls DDM S. aureus
[116] Prospective Jan 2010 -Dec 2011 Casablanca, El Jadida, Settat, Rabat, Meknes, Fez 1174 community acquired uropathogenic E. coli isolates DDM E. Coli
[59] Prospective Jan–Dec 2010 Ibn Sina University Hospital, Rabat 47 nonduplicate A. baumannii isolated from in-patients DDM A. baumannii
[117] Prospective Jan – Sep 2009 Military Hospital Mohammed V, Rabat Non-redundant isolates of P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii from various samples DDM A. baumannii
[118] Prospective 2010 UH Mohammed VI, Marrakech 38 cases of peritonitis (peritoneal fluid) DDM E. coli, K. pneumoniae Streptococcus spp.
[49] Retrospective Jul–Dec 2009 Five cities situated in north, central, west and south Morocco 171 men complaining of urethral discharge E-Test N. gonorrhoeae
[119] Retrospective May 2007–May 2009 UH Mohammed VI, Marrakech and several health centers Nasopharyngeal samples taken from healthy children aged 1–24 months (660 children) DDM S. pneumoniae
[64] Cross-sectional Jan to Jun 2012 Hemodialysis centers in Fez region Nasal swab specimens (143 hemodialyzed outpatients and 32 medical staff) DDM S.aureus
[120] Retrospective Mar to Jun 2012 Clinical laboratories in Tangier-Tetouan region 111 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were collected with patient information ADM Enterobacteriaceae
[121] Prospective Jan 2011–Jan 2012 CHU Ibn Sina Rabat 50 A. baumannii isolates from patients in intensive care unit E-Test A. baumannii
[122] Prospective Feb 2012–Mar 2013 CHU Ibn Sina Rabat Ear swabs were collected from patients at the pediatric hospital DDM E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Streptococcus spp.
[65] Prospective Nov 2008–Feb 2009 Private hemodialysis centres in Casablanca Nasal swabs (145 patients and 42 personnel) DDM S. aureus
[123] Prospective Jun–Aug 2011 Ibn Rochd UH of Casablanca 166 isolates recovered from urine (n = 80), pus (n = 34), blood (n = 24), sputum (n = 11) and others (n = 17) DDM K. pneumoniae
[124] Retrospective Apr 2012–July 2013 Military Hospital Mohammed V, Rabat Isolates from inpatients and outpatients. Urine isolates represented 82% DDM E. coli
[125] Prospective Jan 2012–Dec 2013 UH Mohamed VI of Marrakesh 406 enterobacteriaceae strains isolated (urinary samples of hospitalized children) DDM E. coli, Klebsiella.sp
[126] Retrospective Nov 2010–Dec 2012 Mohammed V Hospital Meknes 150 patients infected by E. coli from hematology (68.7%), urology (22%) and burn (16%) wards DDM E. coli
[127] Retrospective Jan 2010–Dec 2012 Avicenne Teaching Hospital, Marrakech K. pneumoniae strains (urine samples) BMD K. pneumoniae
[128] Retrospective 2010–2012 Avicenne Teaching Hospital, Marrakech Uropathogenic E. coli (urine samples from in and outpatients BMD E. coli
[129] Prospective 2007–2014 Ibn Rochd University Hospital Casablanca 655 S. pneumoniae isolates (pediatric and adult patients) DDM S. pneumoniae
[130] Retrospective Jan 2012–Dec 2013 Abderrahim El Harrouchi children hospital of Casablanca 34 patients (newborns) ADM E. Coli, K. pneumoniae
[48] Not Mentioned Mar 2001–Mar 2012 Pediatric hospital of Rabat Children under-5 with acute moderate-to-severe diarrhea DDM Salmonella spp., E. coli, Shigella spp.
[57] Retrospective 2012–2014 Military Hospital Mohammed V, Rabat clinical isolates of Acinetobacter sp (samples from inpatients) DDM A. baumannii
[52] Prospective Dec 2012–Nov 2013 Military Hospital Mohammed V, Rabat 46 episodes of bacteremia recorded in 39 patients DDM A. baumannii, K. pneumonia
[131] Prospective Feb–July 2013 UH Hassan II, Fez Hospitalized neonates (rectal swab specimens) DDM E. coli, K. pneumonia
[51] Prospective 2012–2015 Laboratories of medical analysis from North-West of Morocco 516 clinical isolates. Specimens including urine (485), pus (15), vaginal specimen (10) and other ones with low rate DDM and BMD E. coli, Klebsiella spp.
[56] Prospective 2010–2014 Ibn Rochd University Hospital Casablanca 4232 non-duplicate blood cultures DDM A. baumannii
[50] Prospective 2003–2009 Pasteur Ins., Casablanca 26 isolates from foodstuffs and humans samples ADM Salmonella Infantis
[66] Retrospective Apr 2007–Dec 2015 Military Hospital Mohammed V, Rabat 451 wounds, 126 blood cultures and 50 catheter samples from burn inpatients DDM E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Streptococcus spp.
[132] Prospective Feb 2013–July 2015 UH Hassan II, Fez Intestinal carriage (newborns hospitalized in neonatal intensive care unit) DDM A. baumannii
[60] Prospective Apr 2015–Jul 2016 MH, Regional hospital of Meknes and UH Center of Casablanca Specimens including urine, pus, distal bronchial Levy protected, bronchial aspirate, central catheter, blood cultures and others ADM A. baumannii
[133] Retrospective Jan 2013–Dec 2017 UH Mohamed VI of Marrakesh 4 769 cytobacteriological examinations of urine (hospitalized children 0–17 years) DDM E. Coli
[61] Prospective Jun 2017–Jun 2018 UH Mohamed VI of Marrakesh Nasal carriage of S. aureus in 300 children consulting at different pediatric specialties ADM and DDM S. aureus
[53] Retrospective Jun 2015–Jun 2016 Mohammed V Hospital Meknes 126 burn patients (86 infected) DDM E. Coli
[55] Case control Mar 2015–Mar 2016 UH Mohamed VI of Marrakesh 479 patients from the clinical and surgical ICU enrolled with a first clinical episode of HAI DDM A. baumannii
[134] Survey 2015–2018 UH Ibn Rochd, Casablanca 19 S. pneumoniae isolates (community patients with respiratory tract infections) BMD S. pneumoniae
[67] Case report 2017 UH Ibn Rochd, Casablanca 35-year-old female patient. Swab sample from the surgical wound DDM S. pneumoniae
[135] Prospective Feb 2013–July 2015 UH Hassan II, Fez Intestinal carriage (newborns hospitalized in neonatal intensive care unit) DDM E. coli, K. pneumoniae
[136] Retrospective Jan 2016–Jun 2019 Cheikh Khalifa International UH, Casablanca Isolates of ESBL-EC isolated from 670 urine samples DDM E. coli
[137] Prospective Jan 2017–Dec 2018 Medical analysis laboratories in Casablanca city 2090 urines samples collected throughout Casablanca from the health facilities DDM E. coli
[58] Retrospective Jun 2016–Dec 2018 UH Mohammed VI of Oujda 863 positive blood cultures in the microbiology laboratory (adults, children and newborns) Not indicated A. baumannii
[138] Retrospective Jan 2012–Dec 2018 Military Hospital Mohammed V, Rabat 10,324 isolates of E. coli DDM E. coli
[54] Case control Jan–Dec 2018 UH Mohammed VI of Marrakesh 131 non-duplicate carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae DDM E. coli, K. pneumoniae
  1. UH, University hospital; ADM, agar dilution method; DDM, disk diffusion method; BMD, broth microdilution