Reniers G, Slaymaker E, Nakiyingi-Miiro J, Nyamukapa C, Crampin AC, Herbst K, et al. Mortality trends in the era of antiretroviral therapy: evidence from the Network for Analysing Longitudinal Population based HIV/AIDS data on Africa (ALPHA). AIDS. 2014;28(Suppl 4):S533-542.
Palella FJ, Baker RK, Moorman AC, Chmiel JS, Wood KC, Brooks JT, et al. Mortality in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era: changing causes of death and disease in the HIV outpatient study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006;43(1):27–34.
Matoga MM, Rosenberg NE, Stanley CC, LaCourse S, Munthali CK, Nsona DP, et al. Inpatient mortality rates during an era of increased access to HIV testing and ART: a prospective observational study in Lilongwe, Malawi. PLoS ONE. 2018;13(2): e0191944.
Wajanga BM, Webster LE, Peck RN, Downs JA, Mate K, Smart LR, et al. Inpatient mortality of HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa and possible interventions: a mixed methods review. BMC Health Serv Res. 2014;3(14):627.
Carmona S, Bor J, Nattey C, Maughan-Brown B, Maskew M, Fox MP, et al. Persistent high burden of advanced HIV disease among patients seeking care in South Africa’s National HIV Program: data from a nationwide laboratory cohort. Clin Infect Dis. 2018;66(suppl_2):S111–7.
Akinkuotu A, Roemer E, Richardson A, Namarika DC, Munthali C, Bahling A, et al. In-hospital mortality rates and HIV: a medical ward review, Lilongwe, Malawi. Int J STD AIDS. 2011;22(8):465–70.
Cox JA, Lukande RL, Nelson AM, Mayanja-Kizza H, Colebunders R, Van Marck E, et al. An autopsy study describing causes of death and comparing clinico-pathological findings among hospitalized patients in Kampala, Uganda. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(3): e33685.
Martinson NA, Karstaedt A, Venter WDF, Omar T, King P, Mbengo T, et al. Causes of death in hospitalized adults with a premortem diagnosis of tuberculosis: an autopsy study. AIDS. 2007;21(15):2043–50.
Wong EB, Omar T, Setlhako GJ, Osih R, Feldman C, Murdoch DM, et al. Causes of death on antiretroviral therapy: a post-mortem study from South Africa. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(10): e47542.
Karat AS, Omar T, von Gottberg A, Tlali M, Chihota VN, Churchyard GJ, et al. Autopsy prevalence of tuberculosis and other potentially treatable infections among adults with advanced HIV enrolled in out-patient care in South Africa. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(11): e0166158.
Gupta RK, Lucas SB, Fielding KL, Lawn SD. Prevalence of tuberculosis in post-mortem studies of HIV-infected adults and children in resource-limited settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS. 2015;29(15):1987–2002.
Burke R, Henrion M, Mallewa J, Masamba L, Kalua T, Khundi M, et al. Incidence of HIV-related hospital admission and inpatient mortality in Malawi (2012–2019): a population cohort study. SSRN Electron J. 2020. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3751320.
LaCourse SM, Chester FM, Matoga M, Munthali C, Nsona D, Haac B, et al. Implementation and operational research: implementation of routine counselor-initiated opt-out HIV testing on the adult Medical Ward at Kamuzu Central Hospital, Lilongwe, Malawi. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015;69(1):e31-35.
Gupta-Wright A, Corbett EL, van Oosterhout JJ, Wilson D, Grint D, Alufandika-Moyo M, et al. Rapid urine-based screening for tuberculosis in HIV-positive patients admitted to hospital in Africa (STAMP): a pragmatic, multicentre, parallel-group, double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2018;392(10144):292–301.
Guidelines for managing advanced HIV disease and rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017. (WHO Guidelines Approved by the Guidelines Review Committee). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK475977/. Accessed 6 Aug 2020.
Jarvis JN, Harrison TS, Lawn SD, Meintjes G, Wood R, Cleary S. Cost effectiveness of cryptococcal antigen screening as a strategy to prevent HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in South Africa. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(7): e69288.
Chipungu C, Veltman JA, Jansen P, Chiliko P, Lossa C, Namarika D, et al. Feasibility and acceptability of cryptococcal antigen screening and prevalence of cryptocococcemia in patients attending a resource-limited HIV/AIDS Clinic in Malawi. J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. 2015;14(5):387–90.
Pathmanathan I, Pasipamire M, Pals S, Dokubo EK, Preko P, Ao T, et al. High uptake of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive TB patients receiving co-located services in Swaziland. PLoS ONE. 2018;13(5): e0196831.
Herce ME, Morse J, Luhanga D, Harris J, Smith HJ, Besa S, et al. Integrating HIV care and treatment into tuberculosis clinics in Lusaka, Zambia: results from a before-after quasi-experimental study. BMC Infect Dis. 2018;18(1):536.
Ford N, Shubber Z, Jarvis JN, Chiller T, Greene G, Migone C, et al. CD4 cell count threshold for cryptococcal antigen screening of HIV-infected individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2018;66(suppl_2):S152–9.
Wake RM, Govender NP, Omar T, Nel C, Mazanderani AH, Karat AS, et al. Cryptococcal-related mortality despite fluconazole preemptive treatment in a cryptococcal antigen screen-and-treat program. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;70(8):1683–90.
HIV and AIDS in Malawi. Avert. 2015. https://www.avert.org/professionals/hiv-around-world/sub-saharan-africa/malawi. Accessed 7 May 2021.
Molloy SF, Kanyama C, Heyderman RS, Loyse A, Kouanfack C, Chanda D, et al. Antifungal combinations for treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in Africa. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(11):1004–17.
Peter JG, Zijenah LS, Chanda D, Clowes P, Lesosky M, Gina P, et al. Effect on mortality of point-of-care, urine-based lipoarabinomannan testing to guide tuberculosis treatment initiation in HIV-positive hospital inpatients: a pragmatic, parallel-group, multicountry, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2016;387(10024):1187–97.