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Table 1 Characteristics of NICU patients comparing EOVAP vs. non-EOVAP groups

From: Analysis of risk factors for early-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia in a neurosurgical intensive care unit

Variables EOVAP (n = 40) Non-EOVAP (n = 49) P-value
Patient's information
 Ageing(≥ 65y) 23 17 0.031
 Male gender 23 26 0.675
 Smoking 3 6 0.506
 BMI (body mass index) 25.4 ± 6.0 25.1 ± 3.9 0.845
 Coronary artery 5 5 0.997
 Diabetes 5 11 0.224
 Hypertension 24 26 0.512
Prehospital intubation 2 5 0.287
APACHE II 14.3 ± 4.0 13.4 ± 3.7 0.274
GCS 7.8 ± 2.0 7.9 ± 2.4 0.864
Drug use (cumulative use time >  = 3d)
 Norepinephrine 19 20 0.527
 Glucocorticoid 11 13 0.918
 Mannitol 34 43 0.705
 Therapeutic hypothermia 13 8 0.074
 Carbapenem antibiotics 5 7 0.806
 Propofol or propofol medium and long chain fat emulsion 26 36 0.387
 Midazolam 27 36 0.641
 Remifentanil or fentanyl 36 44 1.000
 Proton pump inhibitor 34 46 0.289
 H 2 receptor antagonist 6 3 0.291
Laboratory testing (At the time of intubation)
 ALB (g/l) 33.0 ± 6.7 32.5 ± 6.7 0.752
 CRP (mg/l) 61.4 ± 46.7 60.6 ± 47.3 0.936
 PCT (ng/mL), median (IQR) 0.220 (0.10–0.5200) 0.120 (0.080–0.500) 0.148
 ALT (U/l), median (IQR) 29.00 (18.25–33.00) 30.00 (19.00–33.5) 0.944
 Scr (mmol/l), median (IQR) 65.50 (51.25–83.00) 58.00 (43.00–81.00) 0.180
 White blood cell count (× 109/l) 13.4 ± 5.0 12.5 ± 3.8 0.317
 Neutrophils (× 109/l) 11.9 ± 4.7 12.6 ± 12.2 0.734
 Lymphocyte (× 109/l) 0.95 ± 0.46 0.87 ± 0.38 0.373
 Platelet (× 109/l) 180.9 ± 66.5 175.3 ± 61.7 0.683
Laboratory testing (on day 7 after intubation)
 ALB (g/l) 33.8 ± 5.1 32.8 ± 5.1 0.367
 ALT (U/l), median (IQR) 36.50 (30.00–62.75) 46.00 (31.00–60.5) 0.468
 Scr (mmol/l), median (IQR) 63.5 (45.50–93.00) 52.00 (42.00–76.5) 0.198
Laboratory testing (EOVAP group: when pneumonia was diagnosed, non-EOVAP group: on day 7 after intubation)
 CRP (mg/l), median (IQR) 76.45 (53.38–111.00) 55.00 (30.25–64.75) 0.008
 PCT (ng/ml), median (IQR) 0.22 (0.13–0.44) 0.120 (0.075–0.310) 0.047
 White blood cell count (× 109/l) 9.4 ± 3.6 9.7 ± 3.2 0.689
 Neutrophils (× 109/l) 7.8 ± 3.4 7.9 ± 3.0 0.891
 Lymph (× 109/l) median (IQR) 0.8(0.58–1.22) 0.97 (0.73–1.36) 0.108
 Platelet (× 109/l) 147.4 ± 63.4 177.6 ± 76.2 0.044
 MDRB 7 7 0.679
Outcomes of EOVAP and non-EOVAP groups
 Mechanical ventilation time (h) median (IQR) 384(301–493) 290(207–432) 0.02
 ICU stays (d) 19.4 ± 9.6 20.3 ± 11.0 0.676
 Hospital stays (d) 24.8 ± 14.6 23.5 ± 11.7 0.628
 28-day mortality (d) 8 7 0.474