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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population by origin

From: Mortality among Italians and immigrants with COVID-19 hospitalised in Milan, Italy: data from the Luigi Sacco Hospital registry

  Overall
n = 1179
Non-Italians
n = 258
Italians
n = 921
p-value
Median age [IQR] 65 [53, 76] 51 [41, 60] 70 [58, 79]  < 0.001
Age ≥ 65 years, n (%) 585 (49.6) 40 (15.5) 545 (59.2)  < 0.001
Biological sex     
 Female, n (%) 400 (33.9) 86 (33.3) 314 (34.1) 0.882
 Male, n (%) 779 (66.1) 172 (66.7) 607 (65.9)  
Co-morbidities     
 Obesitya, n (%) 231 (19.6) 60 (23.3) 171 (18.6) 0.110
 Diabetes, n (%) 166 (14.1) 32 (12.4) 134 (14.5) 0.419
 Lung diseases, n (%) 199 (16.9) 29 (11.2) 170 (18.5) 0.006
 Heart diseases, n (%) 634 (53.8) 76 (29.5) 558 (60.6)  < 0.001
 Renal diseases, n (%) 116 (9.8) 22 (8.5) 94 (10.2) 0.479
 Oncological diseases, n (%) 151 (12.8) 17 (6.6) 134 (14.5)  < 0.001
 Immune system diseases, n (%) 90 (7.6) 19 (7.4) 71 (7.7) 0.999
 Liver diseases, n (%) 38 (3.2) 13 (5.0) 25 (2.7) 0.072
Number of co-morbidities     
 0 311 (26.4) 119 (46.1) 192 (20.8)  < 0.001
 1 377 (32.0) 68 (26.4) 309 (33.6)  
 2 304 (25.8) 41 (15.9) 263 (28.6)  
 3 +  187 (15.9) 30 (11.6) 157 (17.0)  
Median number of days from symptom onset [IQR] 7 [3, 10] 6.00 [3, 9] 7 [3, 10] 0.026
Disease severity upon hospital admissionb     
 Mild 113 (9.6) 31 (12.0) 82 (8.9) 0.242
 Moderate 487 (41.3) 113 (43.8) 374 (40.6)  
 Severe 279 (23.7) 54 (20.9) 225 (24.4)  
 Critical 300 (25.4) 60 (23.3) 240 (26.1)  
  1. IQR interquartile range
  2. aObesity defined as a body mass index of ≥ 30 [17]
  3. bWHO disease severity classification [18]: mild = mild clinical symptoms, no imaging signs of pneumonia; moderate = fever, cough, dyspnea or other symptoms, imaging signs of pneumonia; severe = any of respiratory distress with a respiratory rate (RR) of ≥ 30 breaths per minute; resting oxygen saturation in air ≤ 93%; PaO2 / FiO2 ≤ 300 mmHg); critical = any of respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation; shock; any other organ failure needing intensive care