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Table 5 Multivariable analysis of treatment variables for the outcome of treatment success versus treatment failure, loss to follow-up, or death

From: Predictors of treatment outcomes among patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Vietnam: a retrospective cohort study

Variable Treatment outcome [n (%)] Odds of treatment success versus failure, loss to follow-up, or death [aOR (95% CI)] p-value
Success (n = 401) Failure, loss to follow-up, or death (n = 211)
Age n/aa n/aa 0.99 (0.98–1.00) 0.079
Gender
 Female 112 (75.7%) 36 (24.3%) 1.00 (reference) 0.016
 Male 289 (62.3%) 175 (37.7%) 0.56 (0.34–0.90)
Diabetes
 No 315 (67.5%) 152 (32.5%) 1.00 (reference) 0.286
 Yes 86 (59.3%) 59 (40.7%) 0.72 (0.40–1.32)
Heart disease
 No 339 (66.7%) 169 (33.3%) 1.00 (reference) 0.683
 Yes 62 (59.6%) 42 (40.4%) 0.83 (0.33–2.05)
HIV
 No 377 (67.0%) 183 (33.0%) 1.00 (reference) 0.049
 Yes 24 (46.2%) 28 (53.8%) 0.44 (0.20–1.00)
Respiratory disorderb
 No 337 (67.0%) 166 (33.0%) 1.00 (reference) 0.395
 Yes 64 (58.7%) 45 (41.3%) 0.76 (0.41–1.42)
Substance abuse
 No 339 (66.9%) 168 (33.1%) 1.00 (reference) 0.607
 Yes 62 (59.0%) 43 (41.0%) 0.77 (0.29–2.09)
Antibiotic resistance
 RR/MDR-TBc 331 (68.0%) 156 (32.0%) 1.00 (reference) 0.039
 Pre-XDR or XDR-TBd 70 (56.0%) 55 (44.0%) 0.53 (0.29–0.97)
Initial sputum (smear) positivity
 No 155 (69.2%) 69 (30.8%) 1.00 (reference) 0.429
 Yes 246 (63.4%) 142 (36.6%) 0.85 (0.57–1.27)
Smear conversion after 2 months
 No 45 (50.0%) 45 (50.0%) 1.00 (reference) 0.204
 Yes 356 (68.2%) 166 (31.8%) 1.47 (0.81–2.67)
Culture conversion after 2 months
 No 85 (58.2%) 61 (41.8%) 1.00 (reference) 0.361
 Yes 316 (67.8%) 150 (32.2%) 1.28 (0.75–2.20)
Smear conversion after 4 months
 No 12 (34.2%) 23 (65.8%) 1.00 (reference) 0.106
 Yes 389 (67.4%) 188 (32.6%) 2.47 (0.82–7.39)
Culture conversion after 4 months
 No 22 (42.3%) 30 (57.7%) 1.00 (reference) 0.008
 Yes 379 (67.7%) 181 (32.3%) 2.93 (1.33–6.45)
At least one side effect experienced during inpatient treatment
 No 336 (66.8%) 167 (33.2%) 1.00 (reference) 0.645
 Yes 65 (59.6%) 44 (40.4%) 0.80 (0.32–2.05)
At least one side effect experienced during outpatient treatment
 No 319 (64.2%) 178 (35.8%) 1.00 (reference) 0.104
 Yes 82 (71.3%) 33 (28.7%) 1.54 (0.91–2.61)
  1. Bolded variables were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) associated with the outcome
  2. aAge is represented as a continuous variable in the model
  3. bRespiratory disorder refers to either: atelectasis, bronchiectasis, bronchitis, bronchopneumonia, chronic pulmonary disease, lung tumor, pneumonia, pneumothorax, or respiratory failure
  4. cRifampicin-resistant or multidrug-resistant tuberculosis
  5. dPre-extensively-resistant or extensively-resistant tuberculosis