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Table 4 Univariate analyses of treatment variables for the outcome of treatment success versus treatment failure, loss to follow-up, or death, using complete case analysis

From: Predictors of treatment outcomes among patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Vietnam: a retrospective cohort study

Variable Treatment outcome [n (%)] Odds of treatment success versus failure, loss to follow-up, or death [cOR (95% CI)] p-value
Success Failure, loss to follow-up, or death
Age (n = 612) n/aa n/aa 0.99 (0.97–1.00) 0.013
Gender (n = 612)
 Female 112 (75.7%) 36 (24.3%) 1.00 (reference) 0.003
 Male 289 (62.3%) 175 (37.7%) 0.53 (0.35–0.81)
Previous treatment (n = 594)
 No 65 (62.5%) 39 (37.5%) 1.00 (reference) 0.456
 Yes 325 (66.3%) 165 (33.7%) 1.18 (0.76–1.83)
Financially supported through SHI (n = 426)
 No 72 (62.6%) 43 (37.4%) 1.00 (reference) 0.310
 Yes 211 (67.8%) 100 (32.2%) 1.26 (0.81–1.97)
Diabetes (n = 424)
 No 256 (68.6%) 117 (31.4%) 1.00 (reference) 0.053
 Yes 28 (54.9%) 23 (45.1%) 0.56 (0.31–1.01)
Heart disease (n = 424)
 No 275 (67.7%) 131 (32.3%) 1.00 (reference) 0.125
 Yes 9 (50.0%) 9 (50.0%) 0.48 (0.19–1.23)
HIV (n = 500)
 No 319 (68.8%) 145 (31.2%) 1.00 (reference) 0.001
 Yes 15 (41.7%) 21 (58.3%) 0.33 (0.16–0.65)
Kidney disease (n = 424)
 No 283 (67.1%) 139 (32.9%) 1.00 (reference) 0.616
 Yes 1 (50.0%) 1 (50.0%) 0.49 (0.03–7.91)
Liver disease (n = 424)
 No 273 (67.6%) 131 (32.4%) 1.00 (reference) 0.248
 Yes 11 (55.0%) 9 (45.0%) 0.59 (0.24–1.45)
Malnutrition (n = 424)
 No 277 (67.4%) 134 (32.6%) 1.00 (reference) 0.312
 Yes 7 (53.8%) 6 (46.2%) 0.46 (0.19–1.71)
Psychiatric disorder (n = 424)
 No 274 (66.5%) 138 (33.5%) 1.00 (reference) 0.237
 Yes 10 (83.3%) 2 (16.7%) 2.52 (0.54–11.65)
Respiratory disorderb (n = 424)
 No 256 (68.8%) 116 (31.2%) 1.00 (reference) 0.034
 Yes 28 (53.8%) 24 (46.2%) 0.53 (0.29–0.95)
Substance abuse (n = 424)
 No 277 (68.1%) 130 (31.9%) 1.00 (reference) 0.027
 Yes 7 (41.2%) 10 (58.8%) 0.33 (0.12–0.88)
Other comorbidityc (n = 424)
 No 277 (67.4%) 134 (32.6%) 1.00 (reference) 0.312
 Yes 7 (53.8%) 6 (46.2%) 0.56 (0.19–1.71)
Infection site (n = 598)
 Pulmonary 378 (65.4%) 200 (34.6%) 1.00 (reference) 0.777
 Extrapulmonary 9 (75.0%) 3 (25.0%) 1.59 (0.43–5.92) 0.492
 Both 5 (62.5%) 3 (37.5%) 0.88 (0.21–3.72) 0.864
Antibiotic resistance (n = 409)
 RR-/MDR-TB 255 (71.4%) 102 (28.6%) 1.00 (reference) 0.000
 Pre-XDR or XDR-TB 24 (47.2%) 28 (52.8%) 0.34 (0.19–0.62)
Initial sputum (smear) positivity (n = 584)
 No 149 (69.6%) 65 (30.4%) 1.00 (reference) 0.152
 Yes 235 (63.7%) 134 (36.3%) 0.77 (0.54–1.10)
Smear conversion after 2 months (n = 557)
 No 41 (53.2%) 36 (46.8%) 1.00 (reference) 0.002
 Yes 341 (71.0%) 139 (29.0%) 2.15 (1.32–3.51)
Culture conversion after 2 months (n = 526)
 No 75 (62.5%) 45 (37.5%) 1.00 (reference) 0.071
 Yes 289 (71.2%) 117 (28.8%) 1.48 (0.97–2.27)
Smear conversion after 4 months (n = 518)
 No 6 (37.5%) 10 (62.5%) 1.00 (reference) 0.005
 Yes 364 (72.5%) 138 (27.5%) 4.40 (1.57–12.33)
Culture conversion after 4 months (n = 509)
 No 15 (44.1%) 19 (55.9%) 1.00 (reference) 0.000
 Yes 351 (73.9%) 124 (26.1%) 3.59 (1.77–7.27)
At least one side effect experienced during inpatient treatment (n = 418)
 No 261 (67.4%) 126 (32.6%) 1.00 (reference) 0.077
 Yes 16 (51.6%) 15 (48.4%) 0.52 (0.25–1.08)
At least one side effect experienced during outpatient treatment (n = 545)
 No 294 (66.2%) 150 (33.8%) 1.00 (reference) 0.120
 Yes 75 (74.3%) 26 (25.7%) 1.47 (0.90–2.40)
  1. cOR = crude (unadjusted) odds ratio
  2. n = number of individuals for whom data were available
  3. RR-/MDR-TB = rifampicin-resistant or multidrug-resistant tuberculosis
  4. Pre-XDR or XDR-TB = pre-extensively drug resistant tuberculosis or extensively drug resistant tuberculosis
  5. Bolded variables were included in the multivariable analysis
  6. aAge is represented as a continuous variable in the model
  7. bRespiratory disorder refers to either: atelectasis, bronchiectasis, bronchitis, bronchopneumonia, chronic pulmonary disease, lung tumor, pneumonia, pneumothorax, or respiratory failure
  8. cOther includes: adrenal failure, anaemia, esophageal cancer, gout, pleural effusion, and a seizure disorder