NtGNL1a ARF-GEF acts in endocytosis in tobacco cells
- 1.6k Downloads
Processes of anterograde and retrograde membrane trafficking play an important role in cellular homeostasis and dynamic rearrangements of the plasma membrane (PM) in all eukaryotes. These processes depend on the activity of adenosine ribosylation factors (ARFs), a family of GTP-binding proteins and their guanine exchange factors (GEFs). However, knowledge on the function and specificity of individual ARF-GEFs for individual steps of membrane trafficking pathways is still limited in plants.
In this work, treatments with various trafficking inhibitors showed that the endocytosis of FM 4–64 is largely dynamin-dependent and relies on proteins containing endocytic tyrosine-based internalization motif and intact cytoskeleton. Interestingly, brefeldin A (BFA), reported previously as an inhibitor of anterograde membrane trafficking in plants, appeared to be the most potent inhibitor of endocytosis in tobacco. In concert with this finding, we demonstrate that the point mutation in the Sec7 domain of the GNOM-LIKE protein1a (NtGNL1a) confers intracellular trafficking pathway-specific BFA resistance. The internalization of FM 4–64 and trafficking of PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) auxin efflux carrier in BY-2 tobacco cells were studied to reveal the function of the ARF-GEF NtGNL1a in these.
Altogether, our observations uncovered the role of NtGNL1a in endocytosis, including endocytosis of PM proteins (as PIN1 auxin efflux carrier). Moreover these data emphasize the need of careful evaluation of mode of action of non-native inhibitors in various species. In addition, they demonstrate the potential of tobacco BY-2 cells for selective mapping of ARF-GEF-regulated endomembrane trafficking pathways.
KeywordsEndocytosis PIN1 protein trafficking Inhibitors of endomembrane trafficking Brefeldin A Adenosine ribosylation factor (ARF)-guanine exchange factor (GEF) BY-2 tobacco cells
Adenosine ribosylation factors
BFA-visualized ENDOCYTIC TRAFFICKING DEFECTIVE1
- Cyt D
GTPase Activating Proteins
Guanine exchange factors
- Lat B
Secretion-associated and Ras-related
SNAP (Soluble NSF Attachment Protein) receptor
Trans-golgi network/Early endosome
Vascular network defective
The eukaryotic endomembrane trafficking system is highly dynamic network of organelles that are connected directly or through a system of trafficking vesicles. In higher plants secretory vesicle transport interconnects endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus (GA), trans-golgi network with the function of early endosome (TGN/EE), endosomal space, prevacuolar compartment (PVC) that later forms the vacuole and plasma membrane (PM) [1, 2]. Budding of vesicles from the donor membrane is accomplished by forming a protein coat responsible for packing of the specific cargo and directing it into its destination. Small guanosine triphosphatase GTPases, such as ARFs, Secretion-associated and Ras-related (SAR) and Secretory (SEC) proteins play essential role in these processes. The switch of GTPase between its active and inactive form is regulated by their GEFs and GAPs (GTPase Activating Proteins) (reviewed by [3, 4]). Clathrin-dependent trafficking, involved in the retrograde and anterograde transport of vesicles in the “post-Golgi” space (between TGN/EE and PM), has been recognized as a major transport in plant cells . The participation of clathrin in the endocytotic internalization of plasma membrane proteins was demonstrated for PIN auxin efflux carriers [6, 7, 8]. Besides PINs, internalization of other plasma membrane proteins depend on clathrin, such as the iron transporter IRT1, the boron transporter BOR1, brassinosteroid receptor kinase BRI1, and the aquaporin water channel PIP2 [9, 6, 10, 11, 12]. There have been uncovered some players of clathrin-dependent transport in plants as ARF proteins, their GAPs and GEFs (reviewed by ). The most studied ARF-GEF GNOM is important regulator of recycling events and with its closest homolog GNOM-like1 (GNL1) protein and ARF-GAP vascular network defective (VAN3) is involved in the selective endocytosis of auxin transport components in A.t. [13, 14, 15]. The secretory or recycling pathway of the post-Golgi vesicles, designated for exocytosis, ends up by docking and vesicle fusion at the PM with the assistance of SNARE (SNAP (Soluble NSF Attachment Protein) receptor) proteins [16, 17]. Prior to the process of the fusion with the PM vesicles are reversibly tethered to the PM by octameric protein complex, exocyst [18, 19, 20].
One of the approaches to study endomembrane transport in vivo is by using inhibitors of various steps of endomembrane trafficking. These drugs affect membrane trafficking by distinct mechanisms. Tyrphostins (TYR), structural analogues of tyrosine are inhibitors of tyrosine kinases and act through their binding to the active sites of the enzymes (reviewed by ). Wortmannin (WM) is the inhibitor of phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3-kinase) activity  and stimulates prevacuolar (PVC)/multivesicular body (MVB) enlargement . Membrane probe filipin (FIL) specifically binds to PM sterols and is often used not only for their detection, but also in higher doses for the inhibition of PM internalization [23, 24]. Dynasore (DNS) is a small molecule that has been reported as highly specific, cell-permeable inhibitor of dynamin GTPase function during clathrin-mediated endocytosis [25, 26]. Also plant hormone auxin was described as an inhibitor of endocytosis in plants . Few studies that address the role of cytoskeleton in the process of endocytosis and protein trafficking in plants use cytoskeletal drugs against actin filaments (AFs) [7, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33] and microtubules (MTs) . BFA is a fungal metabolite that is broadly used in studies of vesicle-mediated protein trafficking. It acts as the inhibitor of anterograde protein trafficking, interfering with the function of ARF-GTPases by interacting with their GEFs . Different reaction upon BFA treatment is caused by the sensitivity of individual classes of ARF-GEFs. The sensitivity/resistance of individual ARF-GEFs to BFA is determined by amino acid sequence of their Sec7 domain .
In this study, we screened microscopically previously described inhibitors of endomembrane trafficking, auxins and cytoskeletal drugs for their their impact on FM 4–64 endocytosis and PIN1-GFP localization in suspension-cultured tobacco cells. Endocytosis of FM 4–64 appeared to be largely dynamin-dependent, relying on proteins containing tyrosine-based internalization motif and requiring intact cytoskeleton. Suprisingly, in contrast to Arabidopsis cells, BFA appeared to be a potent inhibitor of endocytosis of FM 4–64 in tobacco cells. By inserting point mutation into the Sec7 domain of tobacco ARF-GEF NtGNL1a, we have induced its BFA-sensitivity and thus uncovered its preferential role in the endocytosis of FM 4–64 and PIN1.
Results and discussion
Characterization of the effects of inhibitors of endomembrane trafficking, auxins and cytoskeletal drugs on the FM 4–64 uptake
Application of TYR A23 (50 μM) inhibited internalization of the FM 4–64 in comparison with control cells; there were only few FM 4–64 endosomes apparent (Fig. 1b, Additional file 1: Figure S2b). In contrast, TYR A51 (50 μM), previously reported as an inactive tyrphostin with respect to the inhibition of endocytosis , did not inhibit the FM 4–64 uptake. More intensive aggregation of the dye and weak PM staining after TYR A51 (Fig. 1c, Additional file 1: Figure S2c) suggest quite rapid FM 4–64 uptake. In A.t., TYR A23 has been reported to inhibit the recruitment of endocytic cargo into clathrin-mediated pathway .
Specific inhibitory effect of TYR A23 on the PIN2 recruitment, without affecting the FM 4–64 internalization, was previously published in A.t. roots  as well as in Arabidopsis cell suspension culture protoplasts . However, in our experiments with BY-2 suspension cells, TYR A23 clearly inhibited FM 4–64 uptake. These data are in agreement with report of Lam et al. , who showed that in BY-2 cells is the effect of TYR A23 dose- and time-dependent. Clear difference between TYR A23 and A51 observed in our work might reflect the fact that endocytic machinery of BY-2 cells has numerous targets for these tyrosine kinase inhibitors or/and that in BY-2 cells the endocytosis of FM 4–64 is dependent on tyrosine-based internalization motif.
Treatment with 33 μM WM resulted in almost complete arrest of FM 4–64 dye uptake at the PM (Fig. 1d, Additional file 1: Figure S2d) and those very small internalized fraction remained in the cortical cytoplasm (Fig. 1p). This is in agreement with already published results [41, 42]. WM has been proposed to be an inhibitor of protein trafficking downstream of the internalization event at the PM [43, 41]. In A.t., WM inhibits endocytosis via stabilization of clathrin coated pits formation . It thus can be used as a potent inhibitor of very early steps of endocytosis in BY-2 suspension cells.
On the other hand, FIL (15 μM) did not have as dramatic inhibitory effect on FM 4–64 uptake as reported previously in A.t. root cells , although the trafficking of FM 4–64 to the cytoplasm was inhibited (Fig. 1e, o and p), probably by its binding to PM sterols. DNS (80 μM) treatment partially inhibited internalization of FM 4–64, which stained the PM and adjacent cortical cytoplasm (Fig. 1f). Despite the fact that in plants the clathrin-mediated endocytosis has been proposed [16, 8, 6, 39], the use of DNS in plants has been reported only in tomato as inhibitor of internalization of leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein2 LeEIX2 . The inhibition of endocytosis with DNS confirmed that the endocytosis of FM 4–64 in tobacco is at least partially dynamin-dependent. To our surprise, the most potent inhibitor of endocytosis in BY-2 was shown to be BFA (20 μM) (Fig. 1j, Additional file 1: Figure S2h, Fig. 1o and Additional file 1: Figure S2i). BFA blocked the endocytosis at the PM, there was almost no FM 4–64 staining visible throughout the cytoplasm and no BFA aggregations or compartments were formed. Auxin was shown previously to inhibit plant endocytosis . When used in the same concentration (5 μM), all three tested auxins, i.e. indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), naphthalene-1-acetic acid (1-NAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) blocked the internalization of FM 4–64 to the roughly same extent (Fig. 1o). However, natively occurring auxin, IAA (Fig. 1h and o) was slightly less effective than synthetic analogues 1-NAA (Fig. 1g, Additional file 1: Figure S2e and Fig. 1o) and 2,4-D (Fig. 1i and o).
To uncover possible role of cytoskeleton in the processes of endocytosis, we also followed effects of cytoskeletal drugs on the uptake of FM 4–64 dye in vivo. Both inhibitors of AFs depolymerisation Cytochalasin D (Cyt D) (20 μM) and AFs polymerization Latrunculin B (Lat B) (0.5 μM) inhibited endocytosis of FM 4–64 (Fig. 1k, Additional file 1: Figure S2h, Fig. 1l and Additional file 1: Figure S2i). Similarly, the inhibition of tubulin polymerization with 15 μM oryzalin (ORY) (Fig. 1m, Additional file 1: Figure S2g, Fig. 1o, Additional file 1: Figure S2i) as well as their stabilization with 10 μM taxol (TX) (Fig. 1n, Additional file 1: Figure S2f, Fig. 1o and Additional file 1: Figure S2i) interrupted the uptake of FM 4–64. Surprisingly, within the literature there is still only limited evidence on the inhibition of FM 4–64 endocytosis after treatments with cytoskeletal drugs in plants. Our data show that that intact cytoskeleton is required for proper progression of endocytosis in BY-2 cells and are in general in agreement with the role of cytoskeleton in plant endocytosis .
Altogether, BFA that has been reported previously to inhibit the anterograde membrane trafficking in plants , appeared to be the most potent inhibitor of endocytosis in tobacco cells (Fig. 1o and p). Similarly to WM and TYR A23, BFA blocked endocytosis of FM 4–64 at the PM with very few internalized endosomes (Fig. 1o and p), suggesting that these drugs might block more types of endocytic trafficking pathways. BFA-induced inhibition of FM 4–64 uptake into BY-2 cells is in contrast with so far published data by Emans et al.  and BFA action in Arabidopsis cells, where BFA does not block FM 4–64 uptake neither endocytosis of PIN proteins [13, 23]. Moreover, there are also other cases such as gymnosperm pollen tubes of Picea meyeri, where BFA stimulated FM 4–64 uptake , which might be explained by the BFA interference with the mechanism of pronounced secretion of cell wall material (polysaccharides, lipids) that is counterbalanced by endocytosis . As Wang et al.  showed the exocytosis was inhibited by BFA, while FM 4–64 uptake was 2-fold higher. The exocytosis and thus endocytosis of pollen tubes occurs on the tip of the growing tube. By inhibiting secretion (exocytosis) with BFA, endocytosis may proceed not only at the tip of the pollen tube, but along the whole PM, leading to more disperse signal and enhanced FM 4–64 uptake. Moreover, Picea meyeri pollen tubes might contain BFA-sensitive ARF-GEF responsible for the exocytosis and BFA-resistant ARF-GEFs responsible for endocytosis as discussed later.
BFA-induced intracellular accumulation of PIN1 is differentially triggered by vesicle trafficking inhibitors, auxins and cytoskeletal drugs
The pool of PIN1 in these compartments might be both of PM and endomembrane origin, although based on the almost complete inhibition of FM 4–64 endocytosis after BFA shown above, it is more probable that it comes from internal pool of PIN1-GFP. As studied mostly in A.t., BFA induces the formation of GA-ER hybrid compartments, so called BFA-compartments [13, 23, 49, 50, 51] or loss of Golgi cis-cisternae . The regulation of the amount and positioning of PINs within the PM is achieved by constitutive recycling of PIN-containing vesicles between various PM domains and endosomal compartments [6, 29, 44]. This process is inhibited with BFA, which interferes with the activity of ARF-GEF GNOM. Despite of the fact that GNOM was originally proposed to have plant-specific function in recycling from endosomes to the PM , it has been later shown to have additional function in endocytosis . The formation of PIN1-GFP aggregations after BFA observed here further supports our previous results showing decreased auxin efflux in tobacco cells upon treatment with BFA .
In addition, the effect of BFA described above allowed us to address the trafficking of PIN1-GFP using all inhibitors applied after BFA pre-treatment. Under these conditions, the FM 4–64-marked internalization is blocked and resulting redistributions of PIN1-GFP might reflect the activity of its internal pool or the fact that for the particular PIN1-GFP pathway the responsible ARF-GEF is BFA-resistant. Indeed, upon BFA pre-treatment, TYR A23 did not induce PIN1-GFP aggregations (Fig. 2c and m), which suggests that besides blocking endocytosis from the PM of FM 4–64 (Fig. 1b, Additional file 1: Figure S2b and Fig. 1o, Additional file 1: Figure S2i) it also blocks formation of BFA-induced PIN1-GFP aggregations from internal pool or PM. In agreement with Dhonukshe et al.  and Ortiz-Zapater et al. , TYR A51 was inactive (Fig. 2d and m).
After WM treatment, some BFA-induced PIN1-GFP containing aggregations were formed (Fig. 2e and m), but they were morphologically distinct from aggregations induced by BFA alone (Fig. 2b and m). WM caused more massive accumulations of PIN1-GFP in the perinuclear region with smaller aggregations at the cortical cytoplasm (Fig. 2e and m). Since WM also inhibits protein sorting to the vacuole  and induces homotypic fusion of MVBs/PVCs [42, 51, 55], we might suggest that these PIN1-GFP aggregates are BFA-induced aggregations originating at TGN/EE and/or MVB/PVC . Moreover, the clear difference between TYR A23 and WM effect on BFA induced PIN1-GFP accumulation (Fig. 2c, e and m) supports our hypothesis on the inhibition of endocytosis of PIN1-GFP from the PM with BFA.
FIL only partially prevented the formation of BFA-induced PIN1-GFP aggregates, there were observed some PIN1-GFP aggregates in the cytoplasm (Fig. 2f and m). DNS blocked the formation of BFA-induced PIN1-GFP aggregates (Fig. 2g and m), suggesting the inhibition of clathrin-dependent trafficking. Since both TYR A23 and DNS block clathrin-dependent transport [25, 38] we could speculate that the formation of intracellular PIN1-GFP accumulations after BFA might be clathrin-dependent.
Both 1-NAA and IAA inhibited the formation of BFA-induced PIN1-GFP aggregations (Fig. 2h, i and m) much less then 2,4-D (Fig. 2j and m). Synthetic auxin 2,4-D is not so good substrate for auxin efflux carrier in contrast to IAA and 1-NAA  and thus it is accumulated inside cells, where it could block endocytosis or perhaps even trafficking of intracellular pool of PIN1. The formation of BFA-induced aggregations of PIN1-GFP was not fully prevented by both AFs and MTs drugs. Depolymerisation of AFs with Cyt D resulted in the formation of larger and more diffuse clusters of PIN1-GFP (Fig. 2k). In contrast, MTs depolymerisation with ORY only decreased the amount of aggregations (Fig. 2l and m). These data suggest the involvement of AFs in the trafficking/fusion of PIN1-containing endosomes. The process of translocation of endosomes with PIN proteins from one membrane domain to the other, so-called transcytosis  has been shown to involve AFs in the apical-basal targeting of PINs and MTs preferentially in basal targeting . Since there is not clear apical-basal polarity in BY-2 cells, we cannot implicate this model to suspension cells. Previously reported remodelling of AFs in the perinuclear region of tobacco cells by BFA treatment  could include active co-operation between AFs and membrane vesicles/endosomes, suggesting the role of AFs in the endosomal fusion.
In summary, BFA-induced PIN1-GFP aggregations are most probably of intracellular origin and their character depends on clathrin-mediated processes, sterol composition of membranes and AFs dynamics.
BFA action in tobacco cell depends on the composition of ARF-GEFs
Since BFA inhibits vesicle trafficking by interfering with the activity of ARF-GEFs , it could be predicted that ARF-GEFs responsible for the endocytosis of FM 4–64 are BFA-sensitive in tobacco, but BFA-resistant in Arabidopsis. BFA resistance/sensitivity of ARF-GEFs is determined by the amino acid composition of their Sec7 domains. By exchanging specific residues, resistant or sensitive ARF-GEFs might be obtained [13, 59]. BFA-sensitive homolog of GBF, NtGNL1, was cloned from Nicotiana tabacum (N.t.)  and proposed to act at post-Golgi trafficking pathways during embryogenesis, root growth and pollen tube growth . Phylogenetic analysis led to assignment of NtGNL1 to AtGNL1 class, however, the sequence of its Sec7 domains predicts NtGNL1 to be BFA-sensitive, while AtGNL1 is BFA-resistant .
Therefore, we compared amino acid sequence of Sec7 domain of NtGNL1 with all homologous sequences from the recently sequenced and annotated genomes of Nicotiana sylvestris (N.s.) and Nicotiana tomentosiformis (N. tom.)  using TBLASTN. We found eight unique genes coding for potential ARF-GEFs carrying Sec7 domain in s in N.s. and as well as in N.tom. genomes. The residues responsible for BFA sensitivity/resistance are in the closest homologous pairs of N.s. and N.tom. genomes conserved (Additional file 3: Figure S1). Based on the amino acid sequence of Sec7 domain, six potential ARF-GEFs can be predicted to be BFA-sensitive and two of them BFA-resistant (Fig. 3g). In A.t., eight ARF-GEFs have been characterized: three members of GBF family: GNOM, GNL1 and GNOM-LIKE2 (GNL2) [63, 64, 65, 66] and five members of BFA-inhibited guanine (BIG) family, BIG 1–5 [67, 68, 69] exhibiting different sensitivity to BFA . Arabidopsis GNOM and BIG1, 3 and 4 are proposed to be BFA-sensitive ARF-GEFs [13, 67, 70]. GNL1, being important for the GA-ER transport  and selected endocytosis of auxin transport components [13, 14, 15], BIG5 or BFA-visualized ENDOCYTIC TRAFFICKING DEFECTIVE1 (BEN1) being localized into early endosome  and BIG3 , they all show resistance towards BFA. Moreover, BIG 1–4 ARF GEFs have been recently shown to play a crucial role in post-Golgi trafficking during protein secretion in interphase and cytokinesis. During cytokinesis, BIG1-4 switches its mode and delivers endocytic cargo to the newly formed cell plate .
Altogether, it seems that the composition ARF-GEFs is responsible for quite remarkable differences in the overall reaction to BFA between Arabidopsis and tobacco cells (Fig. 3h).
Conversion of BFA-resistant NtGNL1a ARF-GEF to its BFA-sensitive form by site-directed mutagenesis uncovers its role in the endocytosis
Altogether, these data suggest that BFA-resistant NtGNL1a ARF-GEF may preferentially be involved in the endocytosis of both FM4-64 and PIN1-GFP. Moreover, as schematized in Fig. 3h, the composition of BFA-sensitive and resistant ARF-GEFs determines the extent of BFA effect on the endocytosis, which is interestingly very low in Arabidopsis in comparison with tobacco.
This study describes the identification of tobacco NtGNL1a ARF-GEF and its preferential role in the endocytosis including endocytosis of PM proteins (demonstrated here on auxin efflux carrier PIN1 from Arabidopsis thaliana (A.t.). It is shown here that the manipulation with the sensitivity of individual ARF-GEFs to BFA can be used as a tool to uncover their pathway-specific functions.
Plant material, gene constructs and transformation
The tobacco BY-2 cell line (N.t. L., cv. Bright Yellow-2; ) in their exponential growth phase (2–3 days old culture after inoculation), BY-2 cells transformed with A.t. PIN1::PIN1:GFP [73, 74] and BY-2 transgenic lines carrying BFA-resistant version of ARF-GEF were cultured in darkness at 27 °C on an orbital incubator (IKA KS501, IKA Labortechnik, http://www.ika.net) at 120 rpm (orbital diameter 30 mm) in liquid medium (3 % sucrose, 4.3 g l−1 Murashige and Skoog salts, 100 mg l−1 inositol, 1 mg l−1 thiamine, 0.2 mg l−1 2,4-D and 200 mg l−1 KH2PO4, pH 5.8) supplemented for transformed cells with 20 mg l−1 hygromycin and 100 mg l−1 cefotaxim, and sub-cultured weekly. For the gene transformation, basic protocol of An  was used. Three-day-old BY-2 cells were co-incubated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens  strain GV2260 carrying gene constructs in pER8 .
VBI-0 tobacco cell strain derived from the stem pith of N.t. L., cv. Virginia Bright Italia  and A.t. cv. Columbia  were cultured in standard Heller liquid medium  supplemented with synthetic auxins 1-NAA and 2,4-D (5.4 μM, and 4.5 μM, respectively). Cells were sub-cultured every 2 weeks (inoculation density approx.5 · 104 cells ml−1) and cultured at 25 °C in darkness on an orbital shaker (INR-200; Sanyo-Gallenkamp, UK) at 150 rpm (diameter 32 mm).
Styryl dye FM 4–64 (Molecular Probes, catalogue number T13320), BFA, TYR A23, TYR A51, WM, FIL, DNS, cytochalasin D, latrunculin B, ORY, TX and auxins 1-NAA, IAA, 2,4-D (all Sigma-Aldrich) were kept as 20, 50, 50, 50, 10, 20, 80, 10, 20, 57,10 mM and 10, 10 and 10 mM DMSO stock solutions, respectively, and stored in −20 °C.
Application of FM dyes, inhibitors and auxins
Unless otherwise indicated, the following conditions were used. FM 4–64 (final concentration 2 μM) was added to 1 ml of 2-3-day-old BY-2 cell suspension under continuous shaking in multi-well plates, and samples of interphase cells were observed by confocal microscopy at the times indicated . The inhibitors (TYR A23, TYR A51, WM, FIL, DNS, Cyt D, Lat B, ORY, TX) and auxins (1-NAA, IAA, 2,4-D) were added directly to the cultivation medium to final concentrations of 50, 50, 33, 15, 80, 20,0.5,15,10 μM and 5, 5, 5 μM, respectively for 30 min pre-treatment. 30 min pre-treatment with above-mentioned inhibitors was followed by 30 min concomitant treatment with BFA (20 μM) and analysed by confocal microscopy. The appropriate amount of the solvent (DMSO) was added to controls.
Cloning and site directed mutagenesis of NtGNL1a
Full-length coding sequence of NtGNL1a was amplified using cDNA derived from 3-days old BY-2 cell culture as a template. RNA was isolated from 3-days old N.t. BY-2 cell culture using RNeasy Plant Mini kit (Qiagen) and reverse transcribed using oligo-dT primers and M-MLV Reverse Transcriptase (Promega). Full-length coding sequence of NtGNL1a was obtained from cDNA derived PCR product using GoTaq Long PCR system (Promega) and 0.25 μM primers (TGU: 5‘-AAC TAT GAT GGG GTG CCT TAA TCA GC-3‘and TGL2: 5‘-GCT TGT GCT TCA ATG AGC GTG TTT CG-3‘, ). Amplified fragments were inserted in pGEM-T vector (Promega) and sequenced (Acc.Nr. KM262188). Point mutation (Methionin to Leucin) in the Sec7 domain was performed using site-directed mutagenesis kit (LifeSciences) following manual instructions. Primers for base replacement were: 5’-CGT ATT CAC TTA TCC TGC TGA ACA CGG ATC AAC AC-3’ and 5’-GTG TTG ATC CGT GTT CAG CAG GAT AAG TGA ATA CG-3’. Successful base replacement was confirmed by sequencing and mutated NtGNL1a was transferred to plasmid for inducible overexpression in plant cells (pER8, ) and used for BY-2 cell culture transformation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
Microscopy and image analysis
For the in vivo microscopy, Zeiss LSM 5 DUO confocal microscope with a 40x C-Apochromatic water immersion objective (NA = 1.2) was used. Fluorescence signals for GFP (excitation 488 nm, emission 505–550 nm) and FM 4–64 (excitation 561 nm, emission >575 nm) were detected. All analysis was performed using NIS Elements AR 3.00 (Laboratory Imaging Prague) software. First background fluorescence was subtracted in all images. Next we masked by hand intercellular space (outlined by PM stained with FM 4–64 or PIN1-GFP) of each cell excluding PM attached endosomes.
The integrated area of FM 4–64 or intercellular PIN1-GFP respectively was measured and divided by the total area of the cell. Mean values of all ratios (expressed in ‰—per mil of the total cell area) depict the rate of FM 4–64 uptake (or the intercellular pool of PIN1-GFP) into the endosomes and other intercellular compartments (or intercellular PIN1-GFP distribution).
Number of PM attached internalized FM4–64 endosomes was counted manually. Values represent the proportion of FM 4–64 endosomes attached to PM to the sum of the all endosomes (expressed in %).
All treatments were performed in at least three biological repetitions, for each treatment representative images are shown.
The authors wish to thank to Dr. Jana Opatrná for her help with expert image analysis. This work was supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic; project P305/11/P797 (AJ) and NPU I project MSM/LO1417 (JP).
- 21.Barker SA, Caldwell KK, Hall A, Martinez AM, Pfeiffer JR, Oliver JM, et al. Wortmannin blocks lipid and protein kinase activities associated with PI 3-kinase and inhibits a subset of responses induced by Fc epsilon R1 cross-linking. Mol Biol Cell. 1995;6:1145–58.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 25.Macia E, Ehrlich M, Massol R, Boucrot E, Brunner C, Kirchhausen T. Dynasore, a cell-permeable inhibitor of dynamin. Dev Cell. 2006;10:839–50.Google Scholar
- 49.Ritzenthaler C, Nebenführ A, Movafeghi A, Stussi-Garaud C, Behnia L, Pimpl P, et al. Reevaluation of the effects of brefeldin A on plant cells using tobacco Bright Yellow 2 cells expressing Golgi-targeted green fluorescent protein and COPI antisera. Plant Cell. 2002;14:237–61.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 55.Jaillais Y, Fobis-Loisy I, Miège C, Rollin C, Gaude T. AtSNX1 defines an endosome for auxin-carrier trafficking in Arabidopsis. Nature. 2006;443:106–9.Google Scholar
- 57.Kleine-Vehn J, Dhonukshe P, Sauer M, Brewer P, Wiśniewska J, Paciorek T, et al. ARF GEF-dependent transcytosis and polar delivery of PIN auxin carriers in Arabidopsis. Curr Biol. (2008a-a) 18, 526–531.Google Scholar
- 58.Kleine-Vehn J, Langowski L, Wisniewska J, Dhonukshe P, Brewer P and Friml J. Cellular and molecular requirements for polar PIN targeting and transcytosis in plants. Mol Plant. (2008a-b) 1, 1056–1066.Google Scholar
- 78.Axelos M, Curie C, Mazzolini L, Bardet C, Lescure B. A protocol for transient gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts isolated from cell suspension cultures. Plant Physiol Biochem. 1992;30:123–8.Google Scholar
- 79.Heller, R. (1953) Studies on the mineral nutrition of in vitro plant tissue cultures. Ann Sci Nat Bot Biol Veg, pp. 1–223.Google Scholar
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.